Atlantic Slave Trade

Topics: Slavery, Atlantic slave trade, Africa Pages: 9 (2807 words) Published: February 9, 2014
Read p.435-440 notes/MI
The Atlantic slave trade
MI: Trade was the basis of Portuguese relations with Africans, the Portuguese provided African rulers with slaves in return they received ivory, pepper, animal skin and gold. · Portuguese ships pushed down the west of Africa coast and reached the cape of good hope · They established factories, forts and trading posts with resident merchants, along the cost · El mina(1482) was the most important, it was a gold producing region · Africans acquired goods from the Portuguese, the Portuguese would provide African rulers with slaves in return they received ivory, pepper, animal skin and gold · Trade was the basis of Portuguese relations with Africans · Senegambia were there enemies they were Muslims

· Missionary efforts were made to convert the rulers of Benin, Kongo, and other African kingdoms · Kongo ruler, Nzinga Mvembra and his family converted, with the help of Portuguese advisors and missionaries, brought the whole kingdom to Christianity · Images of Portuguese soldiers and traders began to appear in the bronzes of Benin and they carved ivory sculptures of the other African people · Luanda became the basis for Portuguese colony of Angola

· Although for a long time Portugal was interested in pepper, gold, and other products, a central element in this pattern was slave trade · By 1460 some 500 slaves per year arrived in Portugal as a trade with African rulers developed Trend toward Expansion

MI: The Atlantic slave trade drew slaves from across the continent, between 1450-1850, it is estimated that about 12 million slaves were shipped across the Atlantic. · Between 1450-1850, it is estimated that about 12 million slaves were shipped across the Atlantic, with mortality rate of 10-20%, about 10-11 million actually made it to the Americas · The 18th century was the great age of the Atlantic slave trade, probably more than 7 million slave were being exported from 1700-1800 · Cuba received 700000 slaves and brazil took more than 1 million in that century · Mortality was high and fertility was low mainly because there were more men than women · Southern united states where slave population grew mainly because of the climate · In Britain and French Caribbean slaves made up 80-90% of the population · From 1530 -1650 Spanish America and brazil received the majority of African slaves · The Atlantic slave trade drew slaves from across the continent, and its concentration shifted overtime Demographic Patterns

MI: The majority of the trans-Saharan slave trade consisted of women to be used as concubines in north Africa and the middle east but the Atlantic slave trade concentrated on men · Planters and mine owners in the Americas were seeking workers for heavy labor they were not eager to risk buying children · More men than women and more women than children

· New crops such as maize and manioc were introduced to Africa that provide new food resources to the population Organization of the Trade
MI: For more than one century until 1630, the Portuguese controlled most of the costal trade and the were major suppliers of their own colony of brazil and the Spanish settlement in America · The patterns of contact and trade established by the Portuguese at first were followed by rival Europeans on the African coast · The royal African company was chartered when the Dutch became major competitors when they seized el mina · Fewer than 10% of the employees of the royal Africa company who went to Africa ever returned to England · The Spanish developed a complicated system in which a healthy man was called an indies piece and the children and women were priced at fractions of that value · Some groups used their position to tax or control the movement of slaves from the interior to the coast · English slave trade probably ran 5-10% on average the French and Dutch was lower · A triangle trade existed in which slaves were carried to the Americas; sugar, tobacco,...
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