Chapter 15 Outline
I. World Contacts Before Columbus
1. The Afro-Eurasian trade world linked Europe, Asia and Africa in the 15th century.
A. The Trade World of the Indian Ocean
1. Indian Ocean was the center of Afro-Eurasian trade world. 2. Location made crossroads for China, India, the Middle East, and Europe. 3. Trading volume increased over the centuries as merchants congregated in a series of cosmopolitan port cities, most had some form of autonomous self-government 4. Most developed area of commercial web was in the South China Sea. 5. Malacca became a great commercial entrepot
6. Entrepot is a trading pot to which goods were shipped for storage while awaiting redistribution to other places. 7. Mongol emperors opened the doors of China to the West, Encouraging Europeans to do business there. 8. After the Mongols fell to the Ming Dynasty in 1368, China entered a period of agricultural and commercial expansion, population growth, and urbanization. 9. China had the most advanced economy in the world until 18th century. 10. After Zheng He and the emperor died, China turned away from external trade. This opened up opportunities for European states to claim a decisive role in world trade. 11. India was another center of trade. Linked the Persian Gulf and the Southeast Asian and East Asian trade networks.
B. The Trading States of Africa
1. 1450 Africa had a few large and developed empires along with hundreds of smaller states 2. Cairo, the capital of the Mamluk Egyptian empire, was a center of Islamic learning and religious authority as well as a hub for Indian Ocean trade goods. 3. Africa contributed gold to world trade.
4. Gold was sold in the ports of North Africa.
5. Nations inland that sat astride the north-south caravan routes grew wealthy from this trade. 6. 13th century Mali emerged as an important player on the overland trade route. 7. The diversion of gold away from the trans-Sahara routes would weaken the inland states of Africa politically and economically. 8. Slavery was practiced in Africa. Arabic and African merchants took West African slaves to the Mediterranean to be sold in European, Egyptian, and Middle Eastern markets.
C. The Ottoman and Persian Empires
1. Middle East served as an intermediary for trade between Europe, Africa, and Asia. Also an important supplier of goods for foreign exchange. 2. Persian Safavids and Turkish Ottomans were rival empires and dominated the region. 3. Persia and Ottomans competed for control over western trade routes to the East. 4. Ottomans captured Europe's largest city, Constantinople and renamed it Istanbul. It became the capital of the Ottoman Empire. 5. 16th century Ottomans controlled the sea trade in many places and their power extended into Europe to Vienna. This frightened the Europeans. 6. With the trade routes to the east in the hands of the Ottomans Europeans needed to find new trade routes.
D. Genoese and Venetian Middlemen
1. In the late Middle Ages, the Italian city-states of Venice and Genoa controlled the European luxury trade with the East. 2. 1304 Venice established formal relations with the sultan of Mamluk Egypt, opening operations in Cairo, the gateway to Asian trade. 3. Venice claimed victory in the spice trade so the Genoese shifted focus from trade to finance and from the Black Sea to the western Mediterranean. 4. When Spanish and Portuguese voyages began to explore the western Atlantic, Genoese merchants, navigators, and financiers provided their skills to the Iberian monarchs, whose own subjects had much less commercial experience. 5. With the growth of Spanish colonies in the New World, Genoese and Venetian merchants would become important players in the Atlantic slave trade. 6. Italian experience in colonial administration, slaving, and international trade and finance served as a model for the Iberian states as they pushed European expansion to new heights.
II. The European Voyages of Discovery
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