Clinical Chemistry

Topics: Concentration, Blood, Chemistry Pages: 130 (28293 words) Published: July 2, 2013
CLINICAL CHEMISTRY – defined as the study of biochemical processes associated with health & dse & the
measurement of constituents in body fluids or tissues to facilitate dx of dse - dual nature since it’s both a basic and applied science thus clin chem. technologists & technicians should have an understanding of the physiologic & biochemical processes occurring in the body, as well as technical skills to perform the various tests - chemistry in connection with the management of patients, as in a hospital laboratory - application of chemical tests to health care, as in analysis of body fluid components.

SCOPE OF CLINICAL CHEMISTRY

computersbiochemistryinstrumentation

pharmacologyendocrinology
CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
Immunologytoxicology

Analytical chemistry

CELLS – basic unit of the body, where most of the body’s chemical reactions occur

@ Composition:
➢ nucleus
➢ mitochondria
➢ ribosomes
➢ endoplasmic reticulum
➢ secretory granules
➢ cellular (plasma) membrane

@ the formation, growth, & functioning of cells require the presence of appropriate raw materials & enzymes & a readily available energy supply (

@ Malfunction:
1. destruction by trauma or by invasive agents
2. genetic deficiency of a vital enzyme
3. insufficient supply of one or more essential nutrients 4. insufficient blood supply
5. insufficient oxygen supply
6. malignancy
7. accumulation of waste products
8. failure of a control system
9. a defect in the cellular recognition of certain signals

ROLE OF THE CLINICAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORY:
= most clin chem tests entail measuring the concentration of a particular constituent (the analyte) in body fluids, primarily blood plasma or serum
= increased concentration could be caused by the ff:
a. excessive intake
b. excessive body synthesis
c. deficient utilization
d. deficient excretion, or
e. severe dehydration

A medical technologist (MT) is a healthcare professional who performs chemical, hematological, immunologic, microscopic, and bacteriological diagnostic analyses on body fluids such as blood, urine, sputum, stool, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), peritoneal fluid, pericardial fluid, and synovial fluid, as well as other specimens. Medical technologists work in clinical laboratories at hospitals, doctor's offices, reference labs, and biotechnology labs.

ROLE OF THE MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS:
1) the primary work of its technologists is the assay of various chemical constituents in blood, urine and other fluids or tissues.
2) ACCURACY is a prerequisite for the proper identification of a laboratory test 3) a technologist is an essential part of a highly skilled team that contributes to an assessment of the patient’s condition

4) the medtech must have the understanding of the principles of the testing method & some knowledge of the medical uses of the determinations provide the necessary background knowledge for performing the tests and understanding their rationale

5) must understand thoroughly the tools of the trade; the equipment, the reagents, & the principles & calculations involved in the assays

@ 2 phases of clin chemistry:
1) a basic understanding of the physiologic and biochemical processes occurring in the body & 2) the basic information necessary for performing dependable analyses

@ The primary goal of a clin chemistry lab is the correct performance of analytic procedures that yield accurate & precise information, aiding patient diagnosis & treatment.

LABORATORY:

UNITS OF MEASUREMENT
1. 1st component represents the actual value
2. the 2nd is a label identifying the units of the expression

= System Internationale or the SI units
➢ is the...
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