Handbook intercultural communication

Topics: Culture, Cross-cultural communication, Communication Pages: 36 (5806 words) Published: February 6, 2014
Communication I

Table of contents

Communication I


Defining Intercultural Communication __________________ 03
Stella Ting-Toomey's Definition
The Iceberg Metaphor


Cultural Values ______________________________________ 04
Models of Value Orientations
Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's Value Orientations
Three of Hofstede's Cultural Variables in Organizations ____ 05


Perception and Intercultural Communication ____________ 06


Communication Styles _______________________________ 08
Continua of Communication Styles ____________________ 09


Non Verbal Communication ___________________________ 11
Developing Non Verbal Communication Competencies ____ 12


Culture Shock _______________________________________ 13
Some Strategies for Surviving Culture Shock ____________ 14


Bibliography ________________________________________ 15

I Defining

Stella Ting-Toomey's Definition
Although there are many definitions
of intercultural communication, the
one proposed by Stella Ting-Toomey is especially interesting. According to this scholar, the necessary elements of intercultural communication are:
• Two people (or two groups)…
• of different cultures (with the definition of «culture» being quite broad)…
• in interaction…
• who negotiate common meaning.
The fourth item in the definition is
particularly interesting, because it
underlines the importance of not
merely trying to communicate but
also trying to understand – which is
rather more complex and difficult.

as those involving power, dependence and influence) can generate contradictions between the two parts of the so-called cultural iceberg, and context also influences how well the metaphor works. But
the image remains useful for clarifying important relationships which surround ideas about culture.
The image becomes especially
provocative when we consider intercultural interaction, or intercultural communication between two icebergs. We can ask: When we
perceive another, are we viewing
only the visible parts of that iceberg? On what can we base our perceptions and interpretations,

when so much of that iceberg is invisible? Can we truly understand what we see in the other, if we are
unaware or ignorant of the invisible parts of that iceberg? What if we are also unaware or ignorant of
the invisible parts of the iceberg on
which we stand?
Most of the workshop is designed to
make more visible powerful but often invisible differences in cultural values, communication styles, and
conflict styles which influence interaction between people and groups from different cultures, and thus influence our ability to negotiate common meaning interculturally.

The iceberg metaphor is often used
to talk about culture. In an iceberg,
there is both a visible and an invisible part, and the invisible part is larger and more important for stability and for those who must navigate near it. In speaking of culture, the visible parts (architecture, food,

behaviours, institutions, the arts,
etc.) rest upon a larger invisible part
(cultural values, norms, beliefs)
which provide the foundation and
meaning for what is visible. Granted, some cultural interactions (such

Christopher Drew

The Iceberg Metaphor


II Cultural Values

When one speaks of intercultural
communication, one speaks inevitably of cultural values. Whether we are conscious of them or not, values are an important, generally invisible part of our culture. Values form the basis of all our attitudes

and actions, and this brings us into
harmony or conflict with the cultural values of groups in which we are members.
Values are also the lenses through
which we view and evaluate the attitudes and actions of others. As intercultural scholar Stella TingToomey observes, values «set the background criteria for how we
should communicate appropriately
with others. They also set the emotional...

Bibliography: Publishing, 2001. – xviii, 153 p.
Press, 1998. – 270 p.
Swiss culture / Margaret OertigDavidson. – Basel: Bergli Books,
Stella Ting-Toomey. – New York;
London: The Guilford Press, 1999.
Gallois, V. Callan. – Chichester:
Wiley, 1997
Basma Ibrahim DeVries. – Yarmouth; Boston; London: Intercultural Press, 2005. – XVI, 286 p.
encounters with cultural difference / Craig Storti. – Yarmouth: Intercultural Press, 1994. – 140 p.
skills for global business / David C. Thomas, Kerr Inkson. – San
Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2003
Publications, 2001. – X, 262 p.
al.]. – Helsinki: Department for International Development Cooperation, 1998. – 190 p.
Books, 1993. – 295 p.
Me.: Intercultural Press, 2002. –
xix, 234 p.
– Yarmouth: Intercultural Press,
Storti. – Yarmouth: Intercultural
Press, 1999
abroad / Margaret Malewski. –Yarmouth; Boston; London: Intercultural Press, 2005. – XIV, 219 p.
International Development Cooperation, 1998. – 60 p.
Oaks: Sage Publications, 2004. –
XII, 515 p.
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Intercultural Communication and Negotiation in Indochina (Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam) Essay
  • Cross-Cultural Communications Essay
  • Global Village Essay
  • intercultural communication Research Paper
  • Essay about Intercultural vs. Cross-Cultural Communication
  • Intercultural Communication Essay
  • Intercultural Communication Essay
  • Essay on Complications of Intercultural Communication

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free
TRENDING NOW | Информация релиз-группам | Скачать