Industrial Chemistry Notes

Topics: Chemical reaction, Ideal gas law, Chemistry Pages: 92 (20982 words) Published: September 15, 2013
I) INTRODUCTION
* Industrial Chemistry deals with the preparation of products from raw materials through the agency of chemical change * Chemistry is important to Industry by:
* Regulating manufacturing processes
* Quality Control
* Research and Development
* Sources of raw materials from the natural environment
1) Lithosphere –Earth’s Crust
2) Hydrosphere – Marine and Oceanic Environment
3) Atmosphere – Air
4) Plants – Biosphere
* Classification of Natural Resources
1) Renewable
* Resources that regenerate themselves
* Forestry, fishery, and wild life
2) Non- Renewable
* Resources that are formed over long periods of time
* Minerals, metals, and organic materials
* Renewable resources can be non renewable when the rate of consumption of renewable resources is greater than the rate of regeneration. * Chemical Industries commonly manufacture:
* Heavy Chemicals
-common acids, soda ash, salt
* Fine Chemicals
-result from a series of small-scale chemical operations
* Largest Sectors of chemical industry with in the world
1) Petrochemicals (about 30%)
2) Pharmaceuticals (about 16.5%)
3) Performance Chemicals (about 16%)
4) Others (37.5%)
* Top three chemicals manufactured industrially
1) Sulfuric Acid
2) Ethylene
3) Lime
* Characteristics of Chemical Industry
1) It must be essentially science-based industry
2) It must be with great commitment and investment to Research and Development * Eight Standard Industrial Classification
1) Industrial inorganic chemicals
2) Plastics materials, and synthetics
3) Drugs
4) Soap, cleaners, and toilet goods
5) Paints and allied products
6) Industrial Organic Chemicals
7) Agricultural Chemicals
8) Miscellaneous Chemical Products

* Essential Pre-requisites of chemical industry
1) Economic extraction
2) Use of exploitable raw material
* Steps in Chemical Manufacturing
1) Treat of raw materials
2) Chemical Reaction
3) Purification of reaction products
* Typical Structure of a Chemical Manufacturing Process
Products
Separation and Purification
Chemical Reactions
Physical Treatment
Raw Materials

* Primary types of Chemical Reactions
1) Batch Reactions
-Chemical are added to the reactor at the same time and products are emptied completely when the reaction is finished

2) Continuous Reactions
-reactants are added and products are removed at a constant rate from the reactor

* General Principles of Industrial Chemistry
-when undertaking a case study of a particular chemical industry, the following characteristics must be studied: 1) Feedstock (raw materials, preparation)
2) Rate (temperature and pressure variables)
3) Production Yield
4) Co-Products / By-Products
5) Waste Disposal and Effluent Control
6) Quality Control
7) Safety
8) Costs
9) Site Location
10) Suitable Materials for the Construction of a Chemical Plant

II. CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES OF SYNTHESIS

* Chemical Synthesis is the process of creating a chemical compound through a series of physical and chemical manipulations usually involving one or more chemical reactions. * The different fundamental principles are needed for the study of different chemical industry

1) Chemical Principles and Mechanisms of Reaction
2) Fundamentals of Material Balances
3) Influence of Equilibria on Synthesis
4) Stoichiometry
5) Gas Laws
6) Energetics

1. Chemical Principles and Mechanisms of Reaction
A. Chemical Principles
* A chemical reaction is the transformation of one or more substances into one or more new substances, differing from the original in chemical composition or structure * Total number of atoms of any given element remain unchanged during a chemical reaction * Chemical reactions are affected by the following external...
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