7.0 Intercultural communication and negotiation in Indochina (Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam) INTRODUCTION
Under this chapter, explores three main sub-topic which is firstly is barriers to effective communication, secondly is approaches to successful international negotiations, and thirdly is being culturally intelligent in Indochina. The discussion of differences in communicative goals in an intercultural negotiation setting. Every country have their own cultural whether Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam in communication also negotiation. The processes by which they do so are different, and this difference makes it hard and face some difficulties in process of communication and to conclude an agreement which is, of course, the big differences in the process of intercultural communication and negotiation are reflected in the differences in communication goals that are follow by parties that involved. CONTENT
Barriers to Affective Communication
As kineberg (1965) highlight that “we find that culture differ widely from one another in the amount of emotional expression which is permitted. According to Klopf and Park (1982), the ways people communicate and interact, their language patterns, nonverbal (communication without use of spoken language, and transfer of meaning through means such as body language and use of physical space) models all are determined by culture.
Figure 1: Intercultural communication model (Source: Samovar and Porter, 1997)
As we seen at the figure, cross-cultural communication theory begins with the assumptions of cultural variations. These differences act as barriers to communication. The differences exist and knowing the potential effects on communication, the communicator will be more sensitive to the fact and adapt such differences. Here means, that communicators have to understand each other. Culture bound verbal and non verbal communication is non-verbal codes contain of body movements, facial expression, chronemics (time), proxemics (space), gestures, and Para language. Verbal communication displays non-verbal signs through emotion and speaking style as well as intonation, rhythm and others. CAMBODIA
Cambodia is a collective society which means individuals take second place to the group whether this is the family, neighborhood or company. In such societies, etiquette and protocol guidelines are used to maintain a sense of common harmony, for example subtle communication style are employed in order to minimize the chances of causing offense to others. The concept of face ties in with this collective outlook. Protecting both one’s own and other’s face extremely important. Face can roughly be translated as a combination of honor, dignity and public reputation that is attributed to a person. face can be lost, given accrued. Need to aware of the mechanics of face to ensure they do not cause anyone to lose face as a result of unintentional actions. Face is lost when someone is criticized, embarrassed or exposed in public, it can be given by complimenting someone publicly for example for their business acumen or hospitality.
Laos style in cultural of communication is they really highlight the importance of greetings and the rule surrounding the “wa”. They practice unspoken and implicit communication. Communication with people in Laos also need to caution, patient and humality. Laos also to emphasize social standards such as gift, business card, and dress code. And in communication process, you have to watch sensitive subject like politics, history and religion. And lastly, in Laos, it is rude for strangers to touch upon the head of the children where as in western countries it is way of showing affection. VIETNAM
In Vietnam communication intercultural styles is personal relationship are required for successful business relationship. The initial meeting is viewed as an introductory meeting where you get to know one another....
References: Jandt, F.E. (2001). Intercultural communication: An introduction (3rd ed.).
Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.
Madrolle, C. (1996). Indochina. New York: Columbia University Press.
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