The Center for Teaching and Learning
Division of Academic Affairs
Login to Moodle 2
Calendar of Events/Workshops
Services We Provide
Articles, Books ...
Academic Honesty & Integrity
Assessment & Grading
Collaborative Learning Spaces
Goals & Objectives
Bloom's Educational Objectives
Management of Class, Resources, and Behavior
Teaching & Research Assistants
Summer Institute 2009
Summer Institute 2010
Summer Institute 2011
Top 40 Freshman Success Academy
Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
One of the most widely used ways of organizing levels of expertise is according to Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. (Bloom et al., 1994; Gronlund, 1991; Krathwohl et al., 1956.) Bloom's Taxonomy (Tables 1-3) uses a multi-tiered scale to express the level of expertise required to achieve each measurable student outcome. Organizing measurable student outcomes in this way will allow us to select appropriate classroom assessment techniques for the course. There are three taxonomies. Which of the three to use for a given measurable student outcome depends upon the original goal to which the measurable student outcome is connected. There are knowledge-based goals, skills-based goals, and affective goals (affective: values, attitudes, and interests); accordingly, there is a taxonomy for each. Within each taxonomy, levels of expertise are listed in order of increasing complexity. Measurable student outcomes that require the higher levels of expertise will require more sophisticated classroom assessment techniques. The course goal in Figure 2--"student understands proper dental hygiene"--is an example of a knowledge-based goal. It is knowledge-based because it requires that the student learn certain facts and concepts. An example of a skills-based goal for this course might be "student flosses teeth properly." This is a skills-based goal because it requires that the student learn how to do something. Finally, an affective goal for this course might be "student cares about proper oral hygiene." This is an affective goal because it requires that the student's values, attitudes, or interests be affected by the course.
LEVEL OF EXPERTISE
DESCRIPTION OF LEVEL
EXAMPLE OF MEASURABLE STUDENT OUTCOME
Table 1: Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives for Knowledge-Based Goals 1. Knowledge
Recall, or recognition of terms, ideas, procedure, theories, etc.
When is the first day of Spring? 2. Comprehension
Translate, interpret, extrapolate, but not see full implications or transfer to other situations, closer to literal translation.
What does the summer solstice represent? 3. Application
Apply abstractions, general principles, or methods to specific concrete situations.
What would Earth's seasons be like if its orbit was perfectly circular? 4. Analysis
Separation of a complex idea into its constituent parts and an understanding of organization and relationship between the parts. Includes realizing the distinction between hypothesis and fact as well as between relevant and extraneous variables.
Why are seasons reversed in the southern hemisphere? 5. Synthesis
Creative, mental construction of ideas and concepts from multiple sources to form complex ideas into a new, integrated, and meaningful pattern subject to given constraints.
If the longest day of the year is in June, why is the northern hemisphere hottest in August? 6. Evaluation
To make a judgment of ideas or methods using external evidence or self-selected criteria...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document