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Topics: Educational psychology, Education, Teacher Pages: 10 (3185 words) Published: July 18, 2013
Literature Justification for Blended/Reverse Instruction
Liberty University
Debra White
December 2011

Abstract
The concept of a reversed classroom is a logical next step from discovering the benefits of more time on task, direct instruction, reduced lecture time, and modifying homework tasks. If teachers are to find time to increase time on task and direct instruction; and greater comprehension is shown from shorter lectures over longer ones; and if homework is more beneficial when it is reduced into manageable portions; then the best division of labor is to assign the short lecture as homework to give teachers that time in class actively engaged in the application of the lesson(s.) Rigorous literature on the reversed classroom is still in its infancy, but literature on its various beneficial parts is offered here along with it.

Key terms: Blended instruction – teaching pedagogy that uses both virtual and face-to- face instruction. Reverse instruction – a classroom method that appoints the time for lecture material to an at home assignment, while completing practice material during classroom time. Time on task – the amount of time actively engaged in assigned learning. Homework – coursework that is assigned to be completed outside classroom attendance, usually at home. Direct instruction - a teacher centered model of instruction that includes high levels of teacher support/scaffolding, ongoing evaluative monitoring with feedback, and strong student-teacher engagement of the material. (Stein 1998) Podcast/vodcast – audio or video/audio files that can be downloaded from the internet for personal use.

Literature Justification for Blended/Reverse Instruction

Introduction
Jonathan Bergmann and Aaron Sams began a movement. They didn’t intend to; they simply responded to the needs of their own classrooms and collaborated on an idea that was initially intended for their absent students. Then it grew into a method that freed them up to be more actively involved with students during their class periods. It involved video recording their lectures for at home use, and practicing the material and assignments with direct instruction and guidance during class time, thus “flipping”, or reversing, their use of instruction time (Bergmann 2009.) The results were so positive that many others are replicating the method across the nation and tech companies are filling the need with products, (see appendix), that go far beyond PowerPoint® for formatting the lectures they deliver to their students. This concept has been called by a few names: reverse classroom, reverse instruction, flipped classroom, and/or blended instruction, however, the opportunity created by the “flip” to increase teacher-student interaction during class time is what characterizes its success (Bergmann 2009).

As the use of this concept increases parents, teachers, and administrators are asking for research testing its efficacy. Those who are trying flipped classrooms state that increased learning does not occur just by reversing homework and lecture time alone, but by seizing the opportunity to guide and interact with students more. The technology of vodcasting by itself is not a silver bullet for our educational woes; educators must teach with sound methodology and quality regardless of what medium, or time, they choose to lecture in (Roblyer 2009.) With that in mind I propose the following research questions about a reverse classroom study: 1. Will more direct instruction increase measurable comprehension of subject matter as reflected in test scores? Studies so far have had promising results, (Stein, Carnine, & Dixon 1998), and include mastery of material through formative evaluation before moving on in coursework, (Overmyer 2010), extra use of worked examples, (Carroll 1992), and more use of discussion, (Matthews 2008.) 2....

References: Bergmann, J.; Sams, A. (2008) Remixing chemistry class. Learning and Leading with Technology. 36(4) 24-27. A
Bernard, R.M.; Abrami, P.C.; Lou, Y.; Borokhovski, E.; Wade,A.; Wozney, L.; Wallet,P.A.; Fiset, M.; Huang, B
Buffenbarger, A. (2011) Flipping the classroom: Homework in class, lessons at home. National Education Association Filed under PSC Featured News, Union-Led Efforts September 30, 2011 A  
Carroll, W.M
Friesen, N. (2011). The lecture as a transmedial pedagogical form: a historical analysis. Educational Researcher, Vol. 40, No. 3, pp. 95–102 DOI: 10.3102/0013189X11404603
© 2011 AERA
Higgins, K.; Boone, R. (1992) Hypermedia computer study guides for Social Studies: Adapting a Canadian history test. Social Education, 56(3) p. 154-59 B, C
Higgins, L
Urtel, M.G. (2010) Academic podcasts: The student perspective. Academic Exchange Quarterly Winter
2010 ISSN 1096-1453 Volume 14, Issue 4 C
Playlist Magazine Jul 26, 2005 3:00 am
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