What is Instructional Design?
It is strategic planning of a course. It is a blueprint that you design and follow. It helps us connect all the dots to form a clear picture of teaching and learning events. ADDIE Model
The acronym "ADDIE" stands for Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate. It is an Instructional Design model that has withstood the test of time and use. It is simply a "device" to help us think through a course's design. Though the model appears linear, it does not have to be followed rigidly or in a linear approach, especially if you already have course materials developed. The table below gives an abbreviated overview of some of the components of ADDIE. ADDIE does not suggest or follow specific learning theories; it is a project management tool. It helps us think about the different steps in course and instructional design. To get a more in-depth understanding of course design, begin by clicking on the Analyze button on the banner above. Analyze
Pre-planning; thinking about the course
| Design your course on paper
| Develop course materials and assemble the course
| Begin teaching
| Look at the course outcomes with a critical eye
| * Design of course * Audience * Goal * Objectives * Identify contnet * Identify Environment and Delivery * Instructional Strategies * Assessment Strategies * Formative Evaluation * Constraints
| * Name the learning units of Instruction * Identify content and strategies for an individual unit of instruction * Write instructions for the learning unit * Name the menu items for a learning module
| * Based on design phase * Build content, assignments, assessments * Build course structure * Upload content
| * Overview of course * Expectations * Initiate instruction * Interaction * Ask for feedback early on (formative evaluation)
| * Did the students achieve expected learning outcomes? * What have you learned? * How can you make the course better?
AnalyzeThis is your first step for designing your course. In this phase you will simply think through what you want to do. This is the "big picture" of the complete instructional design process, so all you're doing for now is THINKING about your students and course. Don't get hung up on any particular item, and don't worry if you don't understand something. We'll discuss everything later.
| Design of Course * Why are you doing this course? * What is your timeline for developing this course? * How will you schedule your time to work on this course? * Scheduled times to work on the course * What days/times? * Scheduled consultations with an Instructional Designer at CET * Scheduled time for Vista training at ETC * Will anyone else be involved with the design of the course? * Other instructors * Student assistants
| Audience * Who are your students? * How many students will you have? * Why do they need this course? * prerequisite? * elective? * course in major? * What do they need to learn? * What do they already know? * Is there a "gap" between what they know and where they need to go with this instruction? * What do you need to teach? * Do you need to do a pre-test to see "where they are" and "where you need to begin?" * Will you need to do a review with the students? * What types of learning need to happen? (See Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning for domains of learning.) * Knowledge * Skills * Attitudes
| Goal * What is the big picture for this course? In general terms, what is going to happen?
| Objectives * What are the specific learning objectives (outcomes) for this course? * Are the objectives based on accreditation agency, program, or university mission requirements? * What will the students be able to do, or how will they demonstrate that learning has taken place? * What is ESSENTIAL to...
Links: in learning modules * Student activities to make sure they are clear and correlate with content in menuFirst Few Days or Week 1The first few days should be devoted to allowing the students to become oriented to your course. * Students read your welcome page. * Students work through the "Start Here" information. * Students introduce themselves. (This creates a sense of community.) * Give feedback to some or all of the introductions. * If you 're using audio or video, have the students test it before they actually need to use it. * Make sure the students understand all the course policies as outlined in the "Start Here" module. Ask if there are any questions. * Students take the "Student Survey" if you desire to get information from them. * Give a quiz over the "Start Here" module? (optional) * Announce when the students should begin working. * Be vigilant to questions from students; check email and discussions in Vista frequently (at least for the first week), and respond in a timely manner.Week 1 or 2 - Instruction Begins * Post a discussion to reinforce what the students should be doing. * During the first week, ask "How 's it going? This helps the students know you genuinely care about their experience in your course, and it could alert you to any potential problems.Formative Feedback in Each ModuleFormative feedback is useful to help you see what is working and not working. This has already been set up in our course for every learning module. Open-ended questions get the best results. For example: * What do you like best about this learning unit? * What do you like least about this learning unit? * How would you improve this learning unit?You have access to this feedback at any time. It is recommended that you read the feedback on a frequent basis, and make adjustments to the course as necessary. |
EvaluateThe course is over, and it 's now time to stop and evaluate the teaching and learning activities, and student learning outcomes. Student learning outcome is the key factor to evaluating effective course design. There are many factors that can influence student learning outcomes. |
In this section, you will evaluate your course design by looking at how well your students achieved the stated learning outcomes. The answers to the following questions should help you improve your course design. * Does the students ' demonstration of learning align with your stated learning outcomes? * Did the teaching strategies and learning assignments move the students to the stated learning outcomes? * Were the stated learning outcomes specific enough to inform the students of how they should study and how they would be assessed? * If there is a gap between the expected learning outcomes and how well your students achieved the expectations, then there is a problem with course activities and/or delivery.Things you might consider: * If there is a problem, where is it? * Instructions in the overview page not clear * Student learning outcomes * Did the students meet your learning objective statements? * Objective statements not "measurable" * Assessment strategies did not accurately measure objectives * Learning activities did not support objectives * Examples or models of student work not provided * Rubrics/guidelines not clear * Assignments not clear * Other * Re-review all the formative evaluations for clues * Interview students for more feedback |
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