Analysis and Critique of Research-Based Literature (ACRBL)
FIRST INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT ON CROSS CULTURAL RESEARCH
Rachmatwuena I. C. Korompis – ID # 100089465 – DBA10
I. Summary of Hofstede’s Model of Cross-Cultural Management Early management gurus used to presume that their ideas on management apply to everybody all over the world. Their notions were challenged when the Japanese became a world economic superpower, along with the significant rise of dragons and tigers economies. The notion that management principles are not universally applicable across all cultural boundaries soon emerged and began to develop itself through various cross-cultural studies, such as Lane and Beamish’s (1990) study on western companies that built joint-ventures with people from other nations, without considering the differences in their management cultures and thought that it would be sufficient in dealing with global competition problems. One study that stood out from the others came from Geert Hofstede (1980a), who defined culture as: “…the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group from another…the interactive aggregate of common characteristics that influences a human group’s response to its environment”. Richards (2001) mentioned that Hofstede’s study was focused on the differences in ‘mental programming’ among groups of people in different nations, through their collective preferences on certain states of affairs over others. His study was conducted through a questionnaire survey on IBM’s employees in fifty nations and his analysis was based on comparative data from that survey. Hofstede’s empirical study would then strengthen the belief that western, particularly American, management practices could not directly be applied on management from different cultures, which are based on different values. Geert Hofstede identified four levels of social attachments through which culture displays itself: symbols; heroes; rituals...
Bibliography: Hampden-Turner, C., and Trompenaars, F., 1997. Response to Geert Hofstede, in International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 21(1): pp. 149-159.
Hofstede, G., 1996. Riding the waves of commerce: A test of Trompenaars’ ‘model’ of national culture differences, in International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 20(2): pp. 189-198.
Hofstede, G., 1997. Riding the waves: A rejoinder, in International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 21(2): pp. 287-290.
Hofstede, G., 2002. Dimensions do not exist: a reply to Brendan McSweeney, in Human Relations, 55 (11): pp. 1355 – 1361.
McSweeney, B., 2002. Hofstede’s model of national cultural differences and their consequences: A triumph of faith –a failure of analysis, in Human Relations, 55(1): pp. 89-117.
McSweeney, B., 2002. The essentials of scholarship: A reply to Geert Hofstede, in Human Relations, 55(11): pp. 1363 – 1372.
Richards, D., 2001. Managing the conflict of cultures: globalization and the persistence of cultural differences, in K. Thorne and G. Turner eds., Global business regulation: some research perspectives, French Forest, NSW: Prentice-Hall, Pearson Education Australia.
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