Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro di Quaregna e di Cerreto, Count of Quaregna and Cerreto (9 August 1776, Turin,Piedmont – 9 July 1856) was an Italian scientist. He is most noted for his contributions to molecular theory, including what is known as Avogadro's law. In tribute to him, the number of elementary entities (atoms, molecules, ions or other particles) in 1 mole of a substance, 6.02214179(30)×1023, is known as the Avogadro constant. Avogadro's Law Avogadro's law states that equal volumes of gases, at the same temperature and pressure, contain the same number of molecules. Avogadro's hypothesis wasn't generally accepted until after 1858 (after Avogadro's death), when the Italian chemist Stanislao Cannizzaro was able to explain why there were some organic chemical exceptions to Avogadro's hypothesis. One of the most important contributions of Avogadro's work was his resolution of the confusion surrounding atoms and molecules (although he didn't use the term 'atom'). Avogadro believed that particles could be composed of molecules and that molecules could be composed of still simpler units, atoms.The number of molecules in a mole (one gram molecular weight) was termed Avogadro's number (sometimes called Avogadro's constant) in honor of Avogadro's theories. Avogadro's number has been experimentally determined to be 6.023x1023 molecules per gram-mole. Robert Boyle (1627 - 1691)
January 25, 1627 in Munster, Ireland. Seventh son and fourteenth child of fifteen of Richard Boyle, Earl of Cork. Died:
December 30, 1691 at 64 years old.
Claim to Fame:
Early proponent of the elemental nature of matter and the nature of vacuum. Known best forBoyle's Law. Notable Awards and Publications:
Founding Fellow of the Royal Society of London
Author: New Experiments Physio-Mechanicall, Touching the Spring of the Air and its Effects (Made, for the Most Part, in a New Pneumatical Engine)[ (1660) Author: The Sceptical Chymist (1661) Boyle's Law:
The ideal gas law which Boyle is known for actually appears in an appendix written in 1662 to his New Experiments Physio-Mechanicall, Touching the Spring of the Air and its Effects (Made, for the Most Part, in a New Pneumatical Engine)[ (1660). Basically, the law states for a gas of constant temperature, changes in pressure are inversely proportional to changes in volume. Vacuum:
Boyle conducted many experiments on the nature of "rarefied" or low pressure air. He showed that sound does not travel through a vacuum, flames require air and animals need air to live. In the appendix which contains Boyle's Law, he also defends the idea that a vacuum can exist where popular belief at the time was otherwise. The Sceptical Chymist or Chymico-Physical Doubts and Paradoxes: In 1661, The Sceptical Chymist was published and is considered Boyle's crowning achievement. He argues against Aristotle's view of the four elements of earth, air, fire and water and in favor of matter consisting of corpuscles (atoms) which were in turn built up of configurations of primary particles. Another point was that these primary particles move freely in liquids, but less so in solids. He also put forth the idea that the world could be described as a system of simple mathematical laws. Ernest Rutherford
August 30, 1871, Spring Grove, New Zealand
October 19, 1937, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England
Claim to Fame:
Lord Rutherford pioneered the orbital theory of the atom with his famous gold foil experiment, through which he discovered Rutherford scattering off the nucleus. He is sometimes called the Father of Nuclear Physics. Notable Awards:
Element 104, rutherfordium, is named in his honor
Rutherford discovered and named alpha and beta decay and coined the terms alpha, beta, and gamma rays. He demonstrated radioactivity was the spontaneous disintegration of atoms and was the first person to artificially disintegrate an element....
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