THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Science, as a subject is universal and knows no boundaries. The claims of Science for inclusion in the school curriculum came to be recognized after years of active and persistent efforts. Science almost revolutionaries human life and proved indispensable for existence of man. Now, supremacy of Science has been established in every field. In fact, so great is its importance for man and society that the present day people live in an "age of science". No one perhaps needs an explanation at present to include science in the school curriculum, Canon, Wilson, a famous educationist in 1867, in support of inclusion of science as a School subject wrote", "Science teaches what evidence is, what proof is. English, History, Geography, Classics etc. are taught because they provide a liberal education. The main object of imparting education is to turn out intelligent citizens able to appreciate and enjoy the beauty and wonder of Nature. They should be efficient in all walks of life and should take delight in the wealth of culture of past generations and civilizations. Hence, Science should form an essential part of the curriculum as it is the only subject which affords knowledge of certain facts and laws and helps in achieving the main object of education."
"Metacognition” is one of the latest buzz words in educational psychology, but what exactly is metacognition? The length and abstract nature of the word makes it sound intimidating, yet it’s not as daunting a concept as it might seem. We engage in metacognitive activities every day. Metacognition enables us to be successful learners, and has been associated with intelligence (e.g., Borkowski, Carr, & Pressley, 1987; Sternberg, 1984, 1986a, 1986b). Metacognition refers to higher order thinking which involves active control over the cognitive processes engaged in learning. Activities such as planning how to approach a given learning task, monitoring comprehension, and evaluating progress toward the completion of a task are metacognitive in nature. Because metacognition plays a critical role in successful learning, it is important to study metacognitive activity and development to determine how students can be taught to better apply their cognitive resources through metacognitive control.
The term "metacognition" is most often associated with John Flavell, (1979). According to Flavell (1979, 1987), metacognition consists of both metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive experiences or regulation. Metacognitive knowledge refers to acquired knowledge about cognitive processes, knowledge that can be used to control cognitive processes. Flavell further divides metacognitive knowledge into three categories: knowledge of person variables, task variables and strategy variables.
“There is a need to teach for metacognitive knowledge explicitly…we are continually surprised at the number of students who come to college having very little metacognitive knowledge; knowledge about different strategies, different cognitive tasks, and particularly, accurate knowledge about themselves. (Pintrich, 2002)”
Teaching students to use metacognition to understand how they are thinking about Science subjects provides an important step on the path to thinking like scientists (AAAS, 2011). Various assessments and surveys report the downward trends in students’ performance in science. The results are consistent, but a major concern is whether such results are used as a starting point when new programs and activities in science and mathematics education are organized. In particular, it is not clear whether teachers are informed of the results of assessments (Nebres & Vistro-Yu,, 1998). It is very alarming to know that the student’s performance in Science subject is consistently downward. In Addition, the Philippines ranks a poor seventh among nine Southeast Asian nations in the area of education and...
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