Discuss how in the teaching of athletic activities at KS3, teachers can employ differentiated strategies in athletics lessons that are appropriate and challenging for all pupils. Teaching athletics requires a meticulous approach so that every pupil meets all the areas of the National Curriculum of Physical Education (NCPE). Teachers need to use methods that employ differentiated strategies so that pupils are challenged and motivated as this can create an effective learning climate (Ellis et al 2009), The stratagem used needs to focus on individual children’s needs, offering an all-inclusive lesson where content is modified, outcomes, learning activities meet the needs of all different learners. Differentiation is vital on pupils achieving their full potential in their Physical Education (PE) lessons, as pupils need to feel comfortable and motivated in order to feel success. Physical Education is an important infrastructure for promoting future participation in leading a healthy active lifestyle. Teachers need to increase the number of pupils that participate in physical activity by using a variety of approaches to help stimulate and inspire pupils. Athletics can be a key tool to delivering the NCPE and can cover all areas of the key processes and key concepts. There are numerous amounts of excuses in society as to why there would be such a high number of inactivity of children participating in physical education lessons. One issue is the students’ motivation, more specifically the meaning of feeling challenged and an emphasis of achievement in the context (Loraine et al. 2003). If the emphasis of physical education is about competition and creating an ego climate this could disengage pupils (Duda 1992). Duda continues and argues that teach should utilize an approach where achievement is now demonstrated through improved ability, offering everyone the opportunity to accomplish a goal. Cury et al (1996) found a strong perception of interest in physical education, which was to create a mastery climate. This can be created through Javelin, pupils can place a cone down in front of their start position as to where they think they can throw, and then their aim is to see if by the end of the lesson they can move the cone to a further distance whilst adapting and refining their technique. Correspondingly Treasure and Roberts (2001) also found that satisfaction in an activity resulted in success from enthusiasm and effort when performing a challenging task. These findings suggest that a teacher plays a significant role in how a student will think, act and feel as a result of they way they portray achievement in PE. A teacher needs to acknowledge the improvement made rather then who is the best at an activity. Achievement goal theory is one approach that has looked at motivation in PE. Nicholls (1989) came across two states of involvement, task and ego. In an ego climate, ability is established when a performer excels in their performance and achieves high results, particularly when a smaller amount of effort is exerted eg. In long jump whoever jumps the furthest distance receives all the praise and acknowledgement. In contrast, in a task involved climate high levels of effort are exerted to demonstrate ability, therefore this effort, is self-recognized, and achievement is rewarded when mastery is demonstrated eg. Those pupils who show they are trying there hardest to jump and improve their long jump will be acknowledged despite whether they are the highest achievers. In conjunction Pintrich (2000) looks at the orientation of a task. A Mastery orientation allows pupils to focus on a task, learning the task and understanding it. It is vital as a part of mastery orientation for the use of standards of self-improvement so that progress is seen, and pupils gain a deeper understanding of the task. Similar to Nicholls ego state, Pintrich looks at performance orientation where the focal point is on being superior, besting others,...
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