bentley5 ppt ch18

Topics: Slavery, Centuries, Africa Pages: 34 (1082 words) Published: January 6, 2015
Chapter 18

States and Societies of
Sub-Saharan Africa
©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

1

Effects of Early African Migrations





Bantu-speaking peoples settle south of equator
Agriculture, herding spreads with Bantu
migrations
Iron metallurgy

©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

2

Cultivation of Bananas



Domesticated in southeast Asia
Malay sailors colonize Madagascar, 300-500 C.E.





Introduce bananas, yams, chickens

Well-adapted to African climate
Food supply increases with this key crop

©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

3

Population Growth

©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

4

Kin-Based Societies








Stateless, segmented societies
No elaborate hierarchies, bureaucracies
Average population of village: one hundred
Ruled by elders
Network of villages resolve disputes in ad hoc
manner
Higher government authorities rare

©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

5

Chiefdoms






Population pressures after 1000 C.E. increase
competition, disputes
Small chiefdoms appear, overrule kin-based
groups
Small kingdoms form


Ife, Benin

©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

6

Kingdoms, Empires, and City-States of
Sub-Saharan Africa, 800-1500 C.E.

©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

7

Kingdom of Kongo







Basin of the Congo (Zaire) river
Conglomeration of several village alliances
Participated actively in trade networks
Most centralized rule of the early Bantu kingdoms
Royal currency: cowries
Ruled fourteenth to seventeenth century, until
undermined by Portuguese slave traders

©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

8

Islamic Kingdoms and Empires


Islam spreads to west Africa





Trans-Saharan caravans
Coastal east Africa through maritime trade

Profound influence after eighth century

©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

9

Trans-Saharan Trade and Islamic
States in West Africa



Desiccation of Sahara begins ca. 5000 B.C.E.
Introduction of Arabian camels revolutionizes
trade




70-90 days to cross Sahara

Arabs establish trading communities


Gao

©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

10

The Kingdom of Ghana





Not related to modern State of Ghana
Developed fourth to fifth century C.E.
Protection against camel-driving raiders
Center of African gold trade




Imported from south to Ghana

Also sold ivory, slaves

©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

11

Koumbi-Saleh




Capital of kingdom of Ghana
Principal trading center
High point ninth to twelfth century




Population 15,000-20,000

Military, cultural center

©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

12

Islam in West Africa





Kings of Ghana convert, tenth century
Positive impact on trade, relations with north
Africa
Synthesized Islam with local traditions


Nearby Takrur, aggressive missionaries

©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

13

Sundiata (r. 1230-1255)


Empire of Mali extends over kingdom of Ghana





Neighboring kingdoms as well

Took greater advantage of trans-Saharan trade
Nominally Muslim, but did not force conversions

©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

14

Mansa Musa (r. 1312-1337)




Grand-nephew of Sundiata
Fervent Muslim
Performed hajj in 1324-25





Constructed numerous mosques
Supported Muslim scholars

Empire declines after his rule

©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

15

Mansa Musa

©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved....
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