Cape Chemistry Unit 1

Topics: Periodic table, Chemistry, Ion Pages: 9 (2614 words) Published: January 27, 2014
Atomic Structure & Periodic Table (Module 1)
a) discuss process of theoretical change with respect to Dalton’s atomic theory b) know the structure of an atom with respect to (wrt) properties of the sub-atomic particles, their relative charges and masses, location and behaviour in electric and magnetic fields c) define proton number, mass number, isotopes, relative atomic mass d) state and explain concept of radioactivity

e) describe the different types of nuclear decay
f) write nuclear equations illustrating the different types of decay g) understand the n/p ratio, the island of stability and its significance to the stability of the nucleus h) be able to predict which type of decay a radioactive isotope would undergo to fall within the island of stability i) state at least three uses of radioactive isotopes

j) calculate relative atomic masses of elements given isotopic masses and abundances k) describe how an emission spectrum of an element is obtained l) show how emission spectra provides evidence for the existence of discrete energy levels (refer to the Bohr model, using the hydrogen spectrum as an example) m) state and explain the origins of the Lyman, Balmer and Paschen series in the hydrogen spectrum n) be able to perform calculations using energy, wavelength and frequency e.g. ΔE OR dE = hv o) define the terms orbital, sub-shell and shell

p) state and describe the shapes of s and p orbitals and the relative energies of s, p and d orbitals (pay special attention to 3d and 4s relative energies) q) state and apply the rules of filling s, p and d orbitals with electrons r) state the electronic configurations of atoms and common ions of elements with atomic number from 1 – 30 s) define the term first ionisation energy and illustrate it with an equation t) state and explain the factors that influence first ionisation energy (atomic radii, nuclear charge, shielding) u) state and explain the general trend in the first ionisation energy in periods 2 and 3 as well as the anomalies v) show how first ionisation energy gives evidence for sub-shells (use period 3) w) be able to determine the group # of an element based on ionisation energies Forces of Attraction (Module 1)

a) state the various forces of attraction between particles:- ionic bonds, covalent bonds, metallic bonds, dative bonds, hydrogen bonds, Van der Waals forces b) state the relationship between the forces of attraction and states of matter c) relate physical properties( variation in m.p /b.p, solubilities) to differences in strength of forces of attraction d) explain the formation of i) ionic bonds ii) covalent bonds (sigma and pi bonds) iii) metallic bonds, also include relationship between electronegativity and polarity of bonds e) describe the formation of dative bonds e.g. NH3 + H+, BF3 and NH3 f) explain how hydrogen bonds, Van der Waals forces (temporary dipole-induced dipole and permanent dipole-dipole) are formed g) state and explain VSEPR theory

h) use VESPR theory to predict shapes of, and bond angles in simple molecules and ions  BeCl2 (linear), BF3 (trigonal planar), NH4+, CH4 (tetrahedral), NH3, CH3+, H3O+ (pyramidal), H2O (bent / non-linear) i) explain concept of hybridisation and resonance

j) explain shapes and bond angles of methane, ethane, ethane and benzene k) predict shapes and bond angles of molecules similar to ethane and ethane e.g. substituted derivates l) describe qualitatively the lattice structure of crystalline solids and their relation to physical properties e.g. simple molecular (I2), hydrogen bonded (ice), giant molecular (SiO2), ionic (NaCl), metallic (Cu) and giant atomic (diamond, graphite)

The Mole Concept
a) define mole, Avogadro’s Law and molar mass
b) perform calculations involving Avogadro’s Law and molar mass c) construct balanced ionic equations from full equations
d) state molar volumes of gases at stp and rtp
e) define molar concentration and mass concentration
f) perform calculations involving...
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