chemistry project on honey analysis

Topics: Sucrose, Fructose, Sugar Pages: 8 (1140 words) Published: January 25, 2014
Acknowledgement

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my chemistry mentors Mrs. Smiti Gupta for her vital support, genius guidance and encouragement without which this project would not have come forth from  my side. I would also like to express my heartly gratitude to the lab assistants Mr. Rajkumar Singh for his necessary suggestions and initiations during the making of this project. I am grateful to My Parents and My Sister whose blessings and wishes have gone a long way in the completion of this arduous task. And at last  by no means the least I am grateful to Almighty for giving me the strength to successfully conduct my experiment and for sustaining my efforts which many a times did oscillate.

CERTIFICATE

It is hereby to certify that, the original and genuine investigation work has been carried out to investigate about the subject matter. The approach towards the subject has been sincere and scientific. The related data collection and project work has been completed solely, sincerely and satisfactorily by __ of Class XII-B in the academic year 2013-2014, regarding her project titled ‘Honey Analysis’.

Contents

S.No.

Contents

Page No.
I.

Acknowledgement

1
II.

Certificate

2
III.

Content

3
IV.

Introduction to project

4
V.

Objective

5
VI.

Theory

6
VII.

Procedure
 
7-8
VIII.

Observation table

9-10
IX.

Result

11
X.               Conclusion 12 XI.           Bibliography                                   13        

Introduction

Honey has been a staple of the kitchen for centuries. It is a natural substance produced by honeybees, Apis mellifera, in almost every country in the world. Honey is essentially a concentrated aqueous solution of inverted sugar, namely fructose and glucose, but it also contains a very complex mixture of other saccharides, enzymes, amino and organic acids, polyphenols, carotenoid-like substances, Mallaird reaction products, vitamins, and minerals. Honey is laid down by bees as a food source, and humans have exploited this. Apiarists (beekeepers) encourage the overproduction of honey within the hive, so that the excess can be extracted. Beekeeping for the purpose of obtaining honey is an ancient art, practiced in societies at least as early as the Egyptians (2000-5000 years ago) who used honey as food, medicine and for embalming. In many cultures, honey has associations that go far beyond its use as a food.  As an energy source, honey appears to be one of the most effective forms of carbohydrate to ingest after exercise. From a non-nutritional point of view, honey has been used for years to treat a variety of ailments through topical application. It has been used as a remedy for burns, ulcers and wound healing, simply because it has a soothing effect during its application to open wounds.

AIM

To analyze the available honey for presence of different minerals and carbohydrates.

REQUIREMENTS

Apparatus:
1. Test tubes,
2. Test tube stand,
3. Burner,
4. Water Bath.

Chemicals:
1. Fehling solution A, 
2. Fehling solution B,
3. Ammonium chloride solution,
4. Ammonium oxalate solution,
5. Ammonium phosphate,
6. Conc. Nitricacid,
7. Potassium sulphocyanide solution.

THEORY

Honey, thick, sweet, super saturated sugar solution manufactured by bees to feed their larvae and for the subsistence during winter.       Bee honey is composed of fructose, glucose and water, in varying proportions. It also contains several enzymes and oils. Honey contains about 181 substances including sugars, proteins, water, vitamins, minerals, hydroxymethyfurfural (HMF), enzymes, flavonoids, phenolic acids, volatile compounds, and so on. However, the main constituents of honey (as previously stated) are glucose and fructose, water, maltose, sucrose, mineral matter and proteins.  The color & flavor depends...
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