Chemistry Review

Topics: Atom, Chemistry, Chemical bond Pages: 17 (4282 words) Published: September 25, 2013
What You Need To Know for the Chemistry Regents Exam

The Test
The Chemisty Regents Exam is broken down into three sections:
Part A: 35 mulitple choice questions from all units covered over the course of the school year.
Part B: Approximately 25 questions, with a mix of short answer and multiple choice. Questions focus on the Reference
Tables, graphing, and laboratory experiments.
Part C: Approximately 15 short answer questions, most broken down into smaller parts. This is often an eclectic,
unpredictable mix of questions from various units, and may demand students write short paragraphs, use equations and reference tables, or draw graphs and diagrams in order to correctly answer the questions.

Students taking the exam should come with a 4-function or scientific calculator (not a graphing calculator), pen, and pencil. Reference Tables will be provided. Students are required to stay in the examination room for a minimum of 2 hours from the time the test is distributed.

Exam Date:_________________________________

There are 12 specific topics covered on the test. In addition to these you will be required to demonstrate math and graphing skills. The 12 topics covered are:

The AtomMoles and Stoichiometry
Nuclear ChemistrySolutions
Bonding Kinetics and Equilibrium
MatterAcids, Bases and Salts
EnergyOxidation-Reduction (Redox)
The Periodic TableOrganic Chemistry

What is the point of this packet?
This review packet was assembled from NY State’s Core Curriculum, which outlines the material to be tested on the Regents exam. This is by no means a thorough review of the entire course. It is designed to be used with review sheets, past Regents exams and your Reference tables to help you prepare for the coming test. Emphasis is placed on key ideas that are stressed by the Core Curriculum. Additional space has been left for you to add your own notes.

You cannot passively prepare for the Chemistry Regents. There are no shortcuts. You have to study, ask questions, analyze problems and come to review sessions to be thoroughly prepared.
Topic One: The Atom
1. The modern model of the atom has evolved over a long period of time through the work of many scientists. Dalton’s Model:
Elements are made of atoms
Atoms of an element are the same.
Compounds are formed from combinations of atoms.
Rutherford Experiment
Bombarded gold foil with alpha particles. Showed atoms
were mostly empty space with small, dense positively
charged nucleus.
Bohr Model
Small, dense, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons in circular orbits. Wave-Mechanical Model (Modern Atomic Theory)
Small, dense, nucleus positively charged nucleus
surrounded by electrons moving in “electron cloud”.
“Orbitals” are areas where an electron with a certain amount of energy is most likely to be found.

2. Each atom is made of a positively charged nucleus with one or more orbiting, negatively charged electrons.

3. Protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus.

4. Protons have a positive charge, neutrons no charge, and electrons a negative charge.

5. The number of protons in an atom equals the number of electrons. The positive charges of the protons are cancelled by the negative charges of the electrons, so overall an atom has a neutral charge.

6. The mass of a proton is 1 amu. The mass of a neutron is 1 amu. The mass of an electron is almost 0 amu. The amu is defined as 1/12 the mass of a Carbon atom.
The atomic mass of an atom is equal to the total number of protons and neutrons.

7. Each electron in an atom has its own distinct amount of energy. When all electrons are at their lowest possible energy, it is called the “ground state.” Electrons fill in energy levels and orbitals starting with the one that requires the least energy (1s) and progressively move to those levels and orbitals that require increasing amounts of energy.

8. When the electron...
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