1. Compare the general properties of acids with the general properties of bases. Acids:
Aqueous solutions of acids have a sour taste.
Acids change the color of acid-base indicators.
Some acids react with active metals and release hydrogen gas,H2. Acids react with bases to produce salts and water.
Acids conduct electric current.
Aqueous solutions of bases taste bitter.
Bases change the color of acid-base indicators.
Dilute aqueous solutions of bases feel slippery.
Bases react with acids to produce salts and water.
Bases conduct electric current.
2. a. Distinguish between binary acids and oxyacids in terms of their component elements and the systems used in naming them. b. Give three examples of each type of acid.
- Binary acids contain H atoms (which are released as H+ when the acid is dissolved) and a simple anion such as Cl- or Br - or S2-, while oxyacids contain H atoms and an oxyanion such as SO42- or NO3-. Two examples of binary are hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acid, and two examples of oxyacid are sulfuric and nitric. 3. Identify and describe the characteristic properties of five common acids used in industry. Give some examples of the typical uses of each. 4. Although HCl(aq) exhibits properties of an Arrhenius acid, pure HCl gas and HCl dissolved in a nonpolar solvent exhibit none of the properties of an Arrhenius acid. Explain why. - HCl(g) consists of covalently bonded molecules that don’t ionize. Nonpolar solvent molecules don’t attract HCl molecules to cause them to be ionized. 5. a. What distinguishes strong acids from weak acids?
- Strong acids ionize 100% in dilute aqueous solution,while on the other hand, weak acids ionize much less than 100%.
b. Give two examples each of strong acids and weak acids.
-Strong=HCl and HNO3
Weak =HF and H3PO4
6. H3PO4, which contains three hydrogen atoms per molecule, is a weak acid, whereas HCl, which contains only one hydrogen atom per molecule, is a strong acid....
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