Cognitive Learning

Topics: Educational psychology, Cognition, Psychology Pages: 8 (2301 words) Published: March 14, 2014
COGNITIVE LEARNING
What is cognitive learning?
Not all cases of learning can easily be captured by classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Learning would be extremely inefficient if we had to rely completely on conditioning for all our learning. Human beings can learn efficiently by observation, taking instruction, and imitating the behavior of others. Cognitive learning is a powerful mechanism that provides the means of knowledge, and goes well beyond simple imitation of others. Conditioning can never explain what you are learning from reading our web-site. This learning illustrates the importance of cognitive learning.

Cognitive learning is defined as the acquisition of knowledge and skill by mental or cognitive processes — ;the procedures we have for manipulating information 'in our heads'. Cognitive processes include creating mental representations of physical objects and events, and other forms of information processing. How do we learn cognitive?

In cognitive learning, the individual learns by listening, watching, touching, reading, or experiencing and then processing and remembering the information. Cognitive learning might seem to be passive learning, because there is no motor movement. However, the learner is quite active, in a cognitive way, in processing and remembering newly incoming information.

Cognitive learning enables us to create and transmit a complex culture that includes symbols, values, beliefs and norms. Because cognitive activity is involved in many aspects of human behavior, it might seem that cognitive learning only takes place in human beings. However, many different species of animals are capable of observational learning. For example, a monkey in the zoo, sometimes imitates human visitors or other monkeys. Nevertheless, most information about cognitive learning is obtained from studies on human beings. Cognitive skills: Cognitive skills refer to the abilities to gain meaning and knowledge from experience and information. Cognition is more then just learning information, it's the ability to think about new information, process and speak about it and apply it to other, previously acquired information.  As children mature, they develop the ability to think on higher levels, processing information more skillfully and making connections to other information more easily. What are cognitive skills? The following describes key cognitive skills that are critical for learning.

Attention Skills: A student's ability to attend to incoming information can be observed, broken down into a variety of sub-skills, and improved through properly coordinated training. We train and strengthen the three primary types of attention: Sustained Attention: The ability to remain focused and on task, and the amount of time we can focus. Selective Attention: The ability to remain focused and on task while being subjected to related and unrelated sensory input (distractions). Divided Attention: The ability to remember information while performing a mental operation and attending to two things at once (multi-tasking). Memory: The ability to store and recall information:

Long-Term Memory: The ability to recall information that was stored in the past. Long-term memory is critical for spelling, recalling facts on tests, and comprehension. Weak long-term memory skills create symptoms like forgetting names and phone numbers, and doing poorly on unit tests. Short-Term / Working Memory: The ability to apprehend and hold information in immediate awareness while simultaneously performing a mental operation. Students with short-term memory problems may need to look several times at something before copying, have problems following multi-step instructions, or need to have information repeated often. Logic and Reasoning: The ability to reason, form concepts, and solve problems using unfamiliar information or novel procedures. Deductive reasoning extends this problem-solving ability to draw conclusions and come up...
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