Cognitive Theory

Topics: Educational psychology, Albert Bandura, Psychology Pages: 6 (1757 words) Published: July 1, 2013
Cognitive Theory
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Introduction
In this paper it will show that social cognitive theory is my main focus from a wide range of theories outlined in the course syllabus. The theory was proposed by Miller and Dollard in 1941. The theory was later expanding by Walters and Bandura with the principles in observational learning as well as vicarious reinforcement. Bandura also provided the concept of self efficacy in 1977, where he refuted the traditional learning theory for understanding learning. Some of the areas that the theory covers include health communication. To start with the theory deals with cognitive and emotional aspects and aspects related to behavior of understanding behavioral change (Glanz, Rimer, & Lewis, 2002). To add on this the concepts of social cognitive theory provide ways for new behavioral research in health education. Finally the theory welcomes new ideas as far as psychology is concerned.

Core assumptions and statements
The social cognitive theory explains the way that people acquire some skills and how they maintain and keep the skills in certain behavioral patterns. It is also important to note that they do with providing the basis for intervention (Bandura, 1997). Some of the factors to depend on when evaluating the behavioral change include environmental factors in the environment, behavior, and people also present in the said environment. The social cognitive theory provides a framework were programs can be designed, implemented, and appraise.

When speaking of the environment it covers both the social and physical environments that can affect the behavior a person. Some of the social factors would include family members, colleagues, and friends. Some of the physical ones will include the size of the room the temperature and such like things that will play a role in shaping the behavior of a person. Both the environment and the situation provide a good framework for understanding the behavior of a person (Glanz, Rimer, & Lewis, 2002). The situation refers to the mental and cognitive representations of the environment that may affect the behavior of a person. The situation is the perception of the lace, activity or physical features.

It is also important to indicate that the factors of environment, behavior, and people influence each other. Behavior is not simply result of a person and the environment. The environment plays the role of providing the models of behavior.

Concepts of cognitive theory
The social cognitive theory is a view that people simply do not learn from environmental influences but often learn and behave because of his, or her own personal thoughts, feelings, motivation, and actions. Observing others, thinking about the consequences and setting performance goals are a just a few of the examples of the social cognitive theory. This theory also can be split up into three different but equally valid components: observational learning, self-efficacy and self regulation.

Observational learning is the process of learning through observing, imitating, and reflecting from the behavior of others. In most cases, observational learning occurs when someone examines the actions of another and reflects upon the person’s consequences. According, to the consequences of the actions, the observer will imitate the behavior if the outcome is positive or reject it if it is negative. Observational learning in some cases can be seen as reinforcement, but it is self-reinforcement.

Self-efficacy is another component of the social cognitive theory and is the belief that an individual has about his, or her capability successfully to complete a task. Self-efficacy is a cognitive belief...

References: Bandura, A. (Ed.) (1995). Self-efficacy in changing societies. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Glanz, K., Rimer, B.K. & Lewis, F.M. (2002). Health Behavior and Health Education. Theory, Research and Practice. San Fransisco: Wiley & Sons.
Graham, S., & Weiner, B. (1996). Theories and principles of motivation. In D. C. Berliner & R. C. Calfee (Eds.).Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 63-84). New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan.
Pajares, F., & Schunk, D. H. (2001). Self-beliefs and school success: Self-efficacy, self-concept, and school achievement. In R. Riding & S. Rayner (Eds.), Self-perception (pp. 239-266). London: Ablex Publishing.
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