CROSS CULTURAL COMMUNICATION BARRIERS AND CULTURAL FRAMEWORKS
This study’s purpose is define, discuss and evaluate cross cultural communication’s beginning, development and class the approach’s and description’s. Cross cultural communication’s main research is peoples culture which are having very different daily and community life. If this culture begins to interact the other culture it will be subject of cross cultural communication. Cross cultural communication is a very new area and it is not totally discipline. Intercultural and Cross Cultural Communication has been developed for four reasons. These are development in communication technology, economic globalization, multiculturalism and increase in population. Development in technology increase the information market and many more product set in market expansion. After the globalization becomes a very important event in economy products and services can easily transport to other and unknown countries easily, as a result of it communication between them become a necessary tool. When population raised the communication between the cultures becomes necessary, most of the firms want to sell their product to other country where the demand can be created or not desired enough. Also population in developed country begin to fall, otherwise developing or non-developed countries population is increased so developed countries transfer labor force from them and their own culture effect and effected from the other counties .
2. The Development Of Intercultural and Cross Cultural Communication Discipline As a academic work field development in intercultural and cross cultural communication discipline is after World War II, especially after Foreign Ministry of USA begin to train their diplomat in Foreign Service Institute. Before that some education program and foundations like Experiment in International Living- The American Institute of Foreign Trade begin to develop. Not only USA also United Nations and Information Agency increase the interest in Cross Cultural Communication. Cross Cultural term first used by Ruth Benedict. Benedict beginning research was made for USA Information Agency and his book in on Japaneese culture. As a working field Edward T. Hall is the father founder of intercultural communication and first term user in his book “ The Silent Language”. This discipline is begin to develop after 1980’s with the researches of Gudykunst. There are academics like Kluckhohn-Strodtbeck, Robert Oliver (Culture and Communication ), Alfred Goud Smith (Communication and Culture) also help this expansion. To determine the limits of this area the academics like Rich, Proser publish articles but they limits cannot completely determined because every academic want to determine it in their own way.
3. Barriers To Effective Cross-Cultural Communication and Solutions
3.1. Verbal Communication
Misunderstandings that arise from cultural variations in verbal and nonverbal communication may lead to alienation and/or an inability to develop trust and rapport.1 Even there are some miscommunications between people who share same culture, miscommunication between two different culture become much worse and this mostly depends on racial and ethnic prejudice. For effective communication to occur, sender and receiver must be able to appropriately and accurately send and receive both verbal and nonverbal messages. The major barriers are language barriers, class and culture-bound values, non-communication, misinterpretations, stereotypes and stress of intercultural interactions. The language can be very important for communication. For example, use of standard English in counseling definitely places those individuals who are unable to use it fluently at a disadvantage. However, cultural and class values that govern conversation conventions can also operate via language to cause serious misunderstandings. Furthermore, the fact that many blacks,...
References: 11) Exploring Culture Theory – GLOBE, Hofstede and Trompenaars, Lisa Parrott Argosy University/Seattle Campus July, 2013
12) Trompenaars’ and Hamoden-Turner’s Seven Dimensions Of Culture, Alan S
13) Hofstede’s model of national cultural differences and their consequences:A triumph of faith – a failure of analysis, Brendan McSweeney, 2002 http://hum.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/55/1/89
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