cross-culture adjustments

Topics: Culture, Cross-cultural communication, Intercultural competence Pages: 8 (1690 words) Published: December 10, 2013


Literature:
Cross-cultural competence definition
We present the results on the basis of three categories.
International business
Workplace diversity
Intercultural communication
Defining Cross-culture competence
Field
Authors
concept
Definition
International
business
Leiba-o,Sullivan(1991)
Cross-culture competence
Knowledge, skills, abilities and other attributes which include personal interests and personality construct. International business
Black and mendenhall (1990)
Effective cross-culture interaction
Cross-cultural skills development, adjustment and performance. Workplace diversity
Cross et al. (1984)
Cultural competence
A set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or among professionals and enable them Intercultural
Collier(1989);lmahori and lanigan (1989)
Communication
Intercultural communication competence.

Defining the cross-cultural competence in international business The cultural competence depends upon three factors: knowledge, attitude and skills. (lafromboise et al 1993: 96) Here more detailed description about the skills, knowledge and awareness. They suggest that if an individual wants cultural competence they must have: Strong personal identity;

valuable knowledge about the host culture;
Clear communication;
Display sensitivity for the effective process;

Maintain a social and active relationship within the cultural group; Adopt an effective behavior.
Cultural competence and workplace diversity
The term cultural competence is commonly used in the USA, in the sectors of health, medicine and education. “Cross-cultural training enables the individual to learn both content and skill that will facilitate effective cross-cultural interaction by reducing misunderstanding & inappropriate behaviors”(p120). Competence in intercultural communication

The effective interaction between the individuals and different national cultures. Definition and model
Global activities increase around the world, due to the collaboration between the firms for seeking new markets for their products. And the other side needs to find the cost effective location for manufacturing and assembly of the parts of their products. Although many ventures are done but only few of them succeed. The main reasons of failure of these ventures are; Firstly, the managers do not adjust themselves in the foreign culture. (Tung, 1988; doremus et al.,1998; risks, 1999; apud et al; 2003). Nearly 100,000 US expatriates are sent overseas in a year. The estimated expatriate failure rate is between 40 to 55% (black et al, 1999). The results show that significant cost is bear by US firms. The cost range around $250,000 to $1 million (Hill, 2001). This cost depends upon the level of the manager and his rank (storti, 2001). Business author identifies the key factors which are the cause of international firms; the factors are lack of cross-culture competence (cc). The cross-culture competence is the ability of individuals to perform effective function in another culture. The study shows four surprising results.

First the lack of agreement on what constitutes culture competence. Second the absence of in-depth studies of culture competence in the international business. They can’t understand culture competence properly. Third the studies of culture competence in international business ignore large environmental factors, in which managers operate. These factors are political factors, economical factors and technological advancement that can make an overseas manager's assignments challenging (von glinow et al., 2004). Fourth the extremely broad coverage of the topic and literature which is not related to specific topic. Developing the model of cross-culture competence in IB

The knowledge dimension
The knowledge about...
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