The globalizing wind has broadened the mind sets of executives, extended the geographical reach of firms, and nudged international business (IB) research into some new trajectories. One such new trajectory is the concern with national culture. Whereas traditional IB research has been concerned with economic/legal issues and organizational forms and structures, the importance of national culture – broadly defined as values, beliefs, norms, and behavioural patterns of a national group – has become increasingly important in the last two decades, largely as a result of the classic work of Hofstede (1980). National culture has been shown to impact on major business activities, from capital structure (Chui et al., 2002) to group performance (Gibson, 1999). CULTURE DEFINED
In everyday usage, the term culture refers to the finer things in life, such as the fine arts, literature, philosophy, and classical music. The term culture has a much broader meaning that goes far beyond mere personal refinements. The only requirement for being cultured is to be human. Thus, all people have culture. The term culture has been defined in a variety of ways. One of the earliest widely cited definitions, offered by Edward Tylor in the nineteenth century, defined culture as “that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society”. Culture is transmitted through the process of learning and interacting with one’s environment, rather than through the genetic process. Diversity in culture of different society
We can define society as a group of people that share a common culture. A nation or state can have different culture. While the French can be thought of as the political embodiments of French culture, the nation of Canada has at least three culture an Anglo culture, a French speaking culture [Quebecois] and Native American culture. India is also composed of many...
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