1 CURRICULUM: CONCEPTS,NATURE AND PURPOSES
Curriculum from Different Points of View
1. Traditional Points of View of Curriculum*
“It is a body of subjects or subject matter prepared by the teachers for the students to learn”, and is synonymous to course of study and syllabus. *According to Robert Hutchins, curriculum is permanent study which emphasizes rules of grammar, reading, rhetoric and logic and mathematics needed for basic education which gives importance to the 3Rs while college education is for liberal education * Arthur Bestor, an essentialist, believes that the school should be the training ground for the intellect, hence, curriculum should give emphasis on the fundamental disciplines – grammar, literature, writing, mathematics, science, history and even foreign language. * Joseph Schwab believes that the main source of curriculum is discipline, hence it is divided into subject areas- English, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies and others. Humanities, other sciences, languages and others are added. Schwab maintained that discipline is the basic doctrine for curriculum development and that curriculum should be composed only of knowledge based on disciplines. Curriculum is traditionally viewed as a field of study made up of its foundations; domains of knowledge, research theories and principles, is scholarly, theoretical, a written document or plan of action to realize target goals.
2. Progressive Points of View of Curriculum
*Progressivists believe that the list of school subjects, syllabi, course of study and list of courses can only be considered curriculum unless actualized by students. * Curriculum is generally defined as the learners total learning experiences based on John Dewey’s beliefs on experience and education , that reflective thinking unifies curricular elements. He believed that thought is not a product of action but tested by application. *Caswell and Campbell believed that “ curriculum consists of “ all experiences of learners guided by teachers” and this was supported by Smith, Stanley and Shores who defined curriculum as a “ sequence of potential experiences set up in schools for the purpose of disciplining learners in group processes of thinking and acting” Marsh and Willis: Curriculum refers to “ classroom experiences, planned by teachers and learned by students” Points of view on Curriculum Development
Curriculum - a dynamic process
Curriculum development: implies changes that are systematic, a change for the better, modification or improvement of existing conditions. Development should be purposeful, planned and progressive to reap positive results.
Two Models of Curriculum Development
Ralph Tyler Model: Four Basic Principles ( Tyler’s Rationale) 1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? 2. What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes? 3. How can these educational experiences be effectively organized? 4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained or not?
Tyler ‘s model show that curriculum development should consider the following: A . Purposes of the school
B .Educational experiences related to the purposes
c. Organization of the experiences
d . Evaluation of the experiences
Hilda Taba made improvement on Tyler’s Rationale through a linear model, and believed that teachers should participate in curriculum development being its Implementers. Her advocacy is known as grassroots approach.
Taba’s Model has 7 major steos:
1 .Diagnosis of learners needs and expectation of the larger society 2. Formulation of learning objectives
3. Selection of learning content
4. Organization of learning content
5. Selection of learning experiences
6. Organization of learning activities
7. Determination of what to evaluate and the means of doing it
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