Understand the application of theories and principles of learning and communication to inclusive learning and teaching
1. Over the years extensive research has been conducted by many by Psychologists and Scientists who sought to identify the ways in which we learn. As a result several theories have become documented each with different perspectives the main ones being behaviourism, neo-behaviourism, constructivism and humanism but there are some who have a different view on these theories. Minton (2002) identified that “the history of education is littered with failed theories even those that were the result of years and years of research” (pg213). What is common among all the theories presented is that learning takes place in stages, in different pace and time and in different ways. The aim of this paper is to analyse some of the factors which can affect learning and achievement and how these theories can be applied to inclusive learning. 1.1
Analyse the factors that can affect learning and achievement. There are many factors that affect the learning and achievements of students. These factors may be considered a barrier to some individuals but the same factors can also be a source of inspiration and motivation. Motivation and inspiration may come from anyone within the environment in which they hence factors affecting learning and achievement can either be personal or external. Parents influence children’s careers choices both intentionally and unintentionally. Similarly students may be just as inspired by role models and peers outside of the home. External factors affecting learning and achievement can be look at from many different angles. If students live in an area where there is a high rate of crime or are issues of gangs and anti social behaviour then this can cause emotional and psychological disturbance and unsettlement which can affect students’ ability to focus on learning and achievement. External factors can also be extended to include poverty and deprivation as this can limit individuals to learning opportunities. Depending on the postcodes in which student lives this again can also be a significant factor as to whether the level of learning and achievement can be achieved especially in some cases where the educational establishments may not have the level of resources or facilities, or having suitably trained teachers to teach students. The family environment and background are also key factors which can affect learning and achievement which can be seen from different angles. First of all the family structure and support of one or both parents of a student at home can be hugely influential factor. According to the Office of National Statistics publication released on October 31, 2013 there are nearly 1.9 million lone parents with dependent. The single parent charity Gingerbread, report this figure to be as high as 3 million children living in a single parent household and 43 percent of single parents are social housing tenants (gingerbread.org.uk). There can be very little doubt that there is a relationship between the household and family structure and its influence on learning and achievements for students but as previously mentioned for some this may be a barrier to some but for others it can be a source of motivation and inspiration. Research suggests “children intact families tend to have a greater academic achievement and educational attainment and are less likely to exhibit behavioural problems at school. Their parents tend to be more involved in their school activities and have higher expectation for them. It was further stated that individuals from intact families completed on average more years of schooling and were more likely to graduate from High School, attend College and complete college compared to peers raised in blended or single parent families.” (Family Facts.Org). Other factors also include those children who are under the care of the local in foster care or foster homes or...
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