A TERM PAPER
EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION HAS PROVED ITSELF MOST RELEVANT IN ACADEMIC SETTING (DISCUSS).
USORO, THERESA DOMIINIC
GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING DEPARTMENT/SOCIAL STUDIES
MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION
MR I.O. IHEAKA
Educational evaluation started off as a branch of psychology in the late 50s, as a result of curriculum innovations. It was then referred to as Educational Measurement, Measurement and Evaluation or Test and Measurement.
Within the last few decades, educational evaluation has grown into a separate, independent discipline, though with some leanings on the ideas of psychologists, psychometricians and statisticians. Efforts of educational evaluators have been directed specifically towards using precision, objectivity and mathematical vigour of psychological measurement in ways directly related to educational institutions, educational processes and purposes.
Educational evaluation involves the systematic assessment of educational activities. Objects of evaluation include instructional programs, school initiatives and education goals. The growth in federal funding for education and policy-makers' increased calls for school accountability have contributed to the growth of educational evaluation. Many large school districts have personnel responsible for evaluation activities.
Definitions of Educational Evaluation
Various ideas and definitions of educational evaluation are given by different people/researchers.
According to Tuckman (1975) evaluation is a process wherein the parts, processes, or outcomes of a programme are examined to see whether they are satisfactory, particularly with reference to the stated objectives of the programme, our own expectations, or our own standards of excellence.
According to Cronbach et al (1980) evaluation means the systematic examination of events occurring in and consequent on a contemporary programme. It is an examination conducted to assist in improving this programme and other programmes having the same general purpose.
For Thorpe (1993) evaluation is the collection analysis and interpretation of information about training as part of a recognized process of judging its effectiveness, its efficiency and any other outcomes it may have.
This is a broad term that refers to the systematic determination of outcomes or characteristics by means of some sort of assessment device. It is a systematic process of obtaining the quantified degree to which a trait or an attribute is present in an individual or object. In other words it is a systematic assignment of numerical values or figures to a trait or an attribute in a person or object. For instance what is the height of Uche? What is the weight of the meat? What is the length of the classroom? In education, the numerical value of scholastics ability, aptitude, achievement etc can be measured and obtained using instruments such as paper and pencil test. It means that the values of the attribute are translated into numbers by measurement.
Principles of Educational Evaluation
There are important factors to note which can serve as guides to educational evaluators in seeing to the effective planning and implementation of educational programmes, to yield the desired positive results.
The classroom teacher or evaluator should always be perfectly clear in bis mind about what he is aiming to achieve i.e. what to evaluate and how to evaluate. Evaluation of educational programmes should be comprehensive i.e. assess pupils' progress in all areas. Educational evaluation, apart from testing knowledge (Memorization), should also bring about pupils originality and use of ideas, and their ability to think and apply the knowledge and skills already learnt.
It is noted here that evaluation as an integral part of the instructional process involves three steps. These are i....
References: Cronbach, L. J. (1960); Essentials of psychological testing (2nd edition), New York: Harper.
Obimba, F.U. (1989); Fundamental of Measurement and Evaluation in Education and Psychology. Owerri, Totan Pub. Ltd.
Paul, L. D. (1976); Handbook of Academic Evaluation. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Ohuche, R.O. and Akeju, S.A. (1977); Testing and Evaluation in Education. Lagos: African Educational Resources (AER)
STRAIDE Handbook (2002); Assessment and Evaluation in Distance Education. New Delhi: A Publication of Indira Gandhi National
Open University (IGNOU).
Tuchman, B.W. (1975); Measuring Educational Outcomes Fundamental of Testing. Atlanta: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich inc.
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