Behaviour for learning
Engaging with research
Background Research of the Month Section 1 What effective teachers believe Section 2 What effective teachers do to promote pupil learning Thinking skills approaches Collaborative Group Work Assessment for Learning Section 3 How we know this Case study 1: Improving spelling confidence Case study 2: Improving pupils’ thinking in the primary school Case study 3: Using ‘debriefing’ in a North East secondary school Case study 4: Teaching children how to reason together Case study 5: Using diagnostic probes to identify pupils’ understanding in science Case study 6: Peer and self-assessment in creative writing Find out more online References
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Are you in your first years of teaching? Do you want to make sure that what you do in your classroom is based on strong evidence about what works? Like most of us, you are looking for proven teaching strategies and methods that you can use in your classroom. But being in your early years of teaching, you may also be anxious about keeping classroom order, which can make trying new things tricky. You need to have good grounds for believing that what you do is likely to have successful learning outcomes for your pupils. That’s why the GTC decided to bring together some of the cumulative findings from research in this evidence ‘anthology’. Our aim was to bring you sound evidence of effective teaching and learning behaviours for both primary and secondary phases. What this anthology provides Of course, you will continue to acquire knowledge of learning and teaching and of your subjects throughout your professional career, and you will find much in the research literature to support your professional learning. In this anthology we start with the fundamental issue of teacher beliefs: what do effective teachers believe? We then go on to look at what effective teachers actually do. Based on their beliefs, what do effective teachers do to promote learning? We have examined the evidence to find answers to each of these questions and you will find that several important themes keep cropping up throughout the anthology. Keep an eye open for them, because they are important. The focus on teacher beliefs and classroom strategies was drawn from a theoretical framework underpinning research into effective teachers of numeracy that is summarised in one of our Research of the Month (RoM) features. The selection of classroom strategies was based on sound evidence about links between the ways in which teachers behave and pupil behaviour which is closely linked to learning. Each page of this anthology finishes with a brief note that tells you where the evidence synthesis is taken from. These will mostly list the titles of the relevant RoM summaries. You can find full references (see page 37) for the studies on which each RoM is based, links to the summaries themselves and any other references at the end of this anthology. You can also find out more about how we used the evidence base for this anthology in the section on ‘How do we know this?’ (see page 27).
Many sections have an Evidence box that tells you which RoMs to look for for further information and evidence on the RoM website at www.gtce.org.uk/ResearchOf TheMonth
Research of the Month
Making research accessible The GTC’s Research of the Month makes the key findings of academic research studies accessible to teachers. All the studies featured are chosen by the RoM team from the Centre for the Use of Research and Evidence in Education (Curee) for their relevance to classroom practice and the quality of their evidence is carefully appraised. There are now over forty RoMs, and the Curee team have sifted through them to find strands of evidence about teachers, teaching and learning with the potential to support your work as a newcomer to the profession. As well as the full RoM summary itself, look out...
References: Here is the full list of Research of the Month summaries on which this anthology is based and their web links, plus the studies on which they are based. ICT for teaching and learning www.gtce.org.uk/research/romtopics/rom_curriculum/ict_ mar01 Moseley, D., Higgins, S., et al. (1999) Ways forward with ICT: effective pedagogy using information and communications technology for literacy and numeracy in primary schools Newcastle upon Tyne: University of Newcastle Raising standards through classroom assessment www.gtce.org.uk/research/romtopics/rom_teachingandlearn ing/assess_may01 Black, P. and Wiliam, D. (1998) Inside the Black Box London: King’s College, University of London Improving learning through cognitive intervention www.gtce.org.uk/research/romtopics/rom_teachingandlearn ing/case_jun01 Adey, P. and Shayer, M. (1994) Really raising standards London: Routledge Making the difference: teaching and learning strategies in successful multi-ethnic schools www.gtce.org.uk/research/romtopics/rom_inclusion/multiet hnic_schools_sep01 Blair, M. and Bourne, J. with Coffin, C., Creese, A. and Kenner, C. (1998) Research Report RR59: Making the difference: teaching and learning strategies in successful multi-ethnic schools London: DfEE Inside the literacy hour www.gtce.org.uk/research/romtopics/rom_curriculum/litera cy_feb02 This RoM was based on two studies: Fisher, R., Lewis, M. and Davis, B. (2000) An investigation into the implementation of a literacy hour in small rural schools Plymouth: University of Plymouth
Fisher, R. (2000) Changing teacher practice: A report of changes in the practice of teachers in England following the introduction of a national literacy strategy Plymouth: University of Plymouth Researching effective pedagogy in the early years www.gtce.org.uk/research/romtopics/rom_curriculum/early _years_jan03 Siraj-Blatchford, I. Sylva, K., et al. (2002) Research Report RR356: Researching effective pedagogy in the early years London: DfES Effective teachers of numeracy www.gtce.org.uk/research/romtopics/rom_curriculum/num eracy_apr03 Askew, M., Brown, M., Rhodes, V., Johnson, D. and Wiliam, D. (1997) Effective teachers of numeracy: Report of a study carried out for the Teacher Training Agency London: King’s College, University of London Teachers and school-based research www.gtce.org.uk/research/romtopics/rom_cpd/schoolresear ch_may03 This RoM was based on the reports of the TTA/CfBT funded school-based research consortia initiative, 1997-2000, published by the then Teacher Training Agency Social interaction as a means of constructing learning: the impact of Lev Vygotsky’s ideas on teaching and learning www.gtce.org.uk/research/romtopics/rom_teachingandlearn ing/vygotsky_dec03 Cole, M. (ed.) et al. (1978): Mind in Society, The Development of Higher Psychological Processes Massachusetts/London: Harvard University Press Effective literacy teaching in the first years of school www.gtce.org.uk/research/romtopics/rom_curriculum/litera cy_mar04 This RoM was based on three studies: Wharton-McDonald, R., Pressley M. and Hampston, J.M. (1998) Literacy Instruction in Nine First-Grade Classrooms: Teacher Characteristics and Student Achievement, in 37
Elementary School Journal, Vol. 99, pp. 103-119 Pressley, M., Wharton-McDonald, R. et al. (2001) A Study of Effective First Grade Literacy Instruction, Scientific Studies of Reading Vol. 5, pp. 35-58 Taylor, B.M., Pearson, P. D. et al. (2000) Effective Schools and Accomplished Teachers: Lessons about Primary-Grade Reading Instruction in Low-Income Schools Elementary School Journal, Vol. 101, No. 2., pp. 121-165 Grouping pupils and students - what difference does the type of grouping make to teaching and learning in schools? www.gtce.org.uk/research/romtopics/rom_managementofle arning/groupingpupils_may04 Ireson, J. and Hallam, S. (2001) Ability grouping in education London: Paul Chapman Publishing Assessment for Learning: putting it into practice www.gtce.org.uk/research/romtopics/rom_teachingandlearn ing/afl_sep04 Black, P., Harrison, C., Lee, C., Marshall, B., and Wiliam, D. (2003) Assessment for Learning: putting it into practice Maidenhead: Open University Press Learning science – transforming students’ everyday ideas about science into scientific thinking www.gtce.org.uk/research/romtopics/rom_curriculum/scien ce_dec04 Millar, R., Leach, J., Osborne, J. and Ratcliffe, M. (2003) The ‘Evidence-based Practice in Science Education (EPSE) Research Network’, part of the Teaching and Learning Research Programme at the University of Exeter Researching effective pedagogy in the early years www.gtce.org.uk/research/romtopics/rom_curriculum/early _years_jan03 Sylva, K. Melhuish, E. Sammons, P. Siraj-Blatchford, I, & Taggart, B. (2004) What makes a difference in the early years of children’s schooling? The Effective Provision of Pre-School Education (EPPE) Project: Final Report of a longitudinal study funded by the DfES 1997-2004 London: DfES
Consulting pupils about teaching and learning www.gtce.org.uk/research/romtopics/rom_teachingandlearn ing/pupilvoice_jun05 This RoM was based on several studies: Flutter, J. and Rudduck, J. (2004) Consulting pupils: What’s in it for schools? London: Routledge Falmer Arnot, M. McIntyre, D. Pedder, D. and Reay, D. (2003) Consultation in the classroom: Pupil perspectives on teaching and learning Cambridge: Pearson Publishing Fielding, M. and Bragg, S. (2003) Students as researchers: Making a difference Cambridge: Pearson Publishing MacBeath, J. Demetriou, H. Rudduck, J. and Myers, K. (2003) Consulting pupils: A toolkit for teachers Cambridge: Pearson Publishing Arnot, M., McIntyre, D., Pedder, D. and Reay, D. (2003) Consultation in the Classroom: Developing dialogue about teaching and learning Cambridge: Pearson Publishing Experiencing Secondary School Mathematics www.gtce.org.uk/research/romtopics/rom_curriculum/math s_sep05 Boaler, J. (2002) Experiencing School Mathematics (Revised Edition) New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Enquiry-based learning, cognitive acceleration and the spiral curriculum: Jerome Bruner’s constructivist view of teaching and learning www.gtce.org.uk/research/romtopics/rom_teachingandlearn ing/bruner_may06 This study was based on several works by Bruner, including: Bruner, J. S. (1977) The Process of Education, (Revised Edition) Harvard University Press. Bruner, J. S. (1966) Toward a Theory of Instruction, Harvard University Press. Bruner, J. S. (1971) The Relevance of Education, Penguin Education.
Other studies Collaborative learning Bennett J, Lubben F, Hogarth S, Campbell B (2004) A systematic review of the use of small group discussions in science teaching with students aged 11-18, and their effects on students’ understanding in science or attitude to science. In: Research Evidence in Education Library. London: EPPI Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education. For an online summary, go to: http://eppi.ioe.ac.uk/EPPIWeb/home.aspx?page=/reel/revie w_groups/science/review_one_abstract.htm Bennett, J., Lubben, F., Hogarth, S., Campbell, B. Robinson, A. (2005) A systematic review of the nature of small-group discussions aimed at improving students ' understanding of evidence in science In: Research Evidence in Education Library. London: EPPI Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education. For an online summary, go to: http://eppi.ioe.ac.uk/cms and search on ‘small-group discussions in science teaching’. Gillies, R.M. & Boyle, M. (2004), The effects of co-operative learning on junior high school students during small group learning Learning and Instruction 14 pp.197-213. For an online summary, go to: www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/research/themes/pupil_groupin g/ThuAug261107362004/ Gillies, R.M. & Boyle, M. (2005), Teachers’ scaffolding behaviours during co-operative learning Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education 33 (3) pp.243-259. For an online summary, go to: www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/research/themes/pupil_groupin g/communicationplay/
Behaviour for learning
Publication date: June 2008 Publication code: P-BFL1-0608 Birmingham: Victoria Square House, Victoria Square, Birmingham B2 4AJ. London: Whittington House, 19-30 Alfred Place, London WC1E 7EA. 42
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