The techniques and approaches found in TESOL differ dramatically from those of other areas of teaching because of its student centred and dynamic nature. Furthermore, since TESOL takes place in a multicultural environment; that is, the ESL classroom, intercultural aspects should also be considered, addressed, and ideally, taught. As a result, the cultural diversity found in TESOL and the interactive nature of this field of teaching has an impact on the way language is presented and practised.
According to the online articled Why to activate your ESL students' Background Schema, published by Laura Greenwood (2011) on bridgetefl.com, “it is important to activate your students' experiences with and knowledge of the topic of the listening/reading”. By activating students' schematta, the teacher is not only directing the students into the topic and creating interest in it but also encouraging them to use language in context. Additionally, experienced and creative ESL teachers may be able to pre-teach contextualized vocabulary whilst activating students' schematta because many unknown lexical items found in listening and reading passages are in fact related to the topic of the text/listening, so the teacher has a context to teach (elicit) these words. Another important strategy adopted by ESL teachers is language elicitation. Rather than introducing a word by saying: “this is a word and that is what it means” or teaching a grammar point by simply telling the students its rules and form, TESOL teachers often use an essential technique called elicitation, through which students can be involved in the process of discovering and understanding language; that is, the teacher uses different techniques to elicit lexical items or grammatical structures that they want to introduce to their students. However, it is usually the case that ESL learners may not know the word or grammatical item that the teacher is trying to elicit, but they will at least know the concept of the...
References: Greenwood, L. (2011) Why to activate your ESL students ' Background Schema. Retrieved from http://www.bridgetefl.com/why-to-activate-your-esl-students-background-schema/
Eliciting (BBC teaching English, 2009, section cultural considerations ). Retrieved from http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/eliciting
Harmer, J. (2007). The practice of English language teaching (4th edition). Essex: Pearson
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