Armitage, et al., (2007:109-110) describe teaching resources as the instruments used by teaching staff to enhance their teaching. Learning resources are viewed as instruments used by the students to solidify their learning.
A number of teaching resources are used to enhance teaching in the classroom. PowerPoint is used when introducing students to new topics and theories. PowerPoint can be a “highly effective tool to aid learning” (Smith, 2014). By using PowerPoint as a visual aid it can allow lecturers to deliver lessons in a more interactive manner than simply lecturing students (InvestinTech, n.d.). However, if PowerPoint is not utilised correctly, lecturers and students can suffer from “Death by PowerPoint”. Taylor (2007:395) discusses how students can become disengaged in a lecture if the lecturer merely reads each slide verbatim to the students thus leaving them with the impression they could have read the slides in their own time and not turned up to the class. PowerPoint can also be used to assist learners with additional needs. The slides used are designed based on guidance from Dyslexia-Plus (n.d.). Slides have a dark background with light coloured text as lights tend to be lowered in the classroom during lectures.
Students attending class are encouraged to participate in group work. Coffield (2002) makes the assumption learning is rooted in social involvement and negotiation. By encouraging students to work together they not only learn to complete the task at hand, they also learn how to discuss and debate their opinions with others. Eraut (2000) argues that an individual’s knowledge may not be enough. Group work, or working as part of a team, brings in new personal knowledge which can be shared among the group. The activity “Think-Pair-Share” has been used during the introduction of new topics. This allows students who have difficulty speaking in front of larger numbers to express their views as well as the more confident (Brown University, 2014 and Center For Faculty Excellence, 2009).
Students are frequently encouraged to undertake further reading out with the classroom in order to connect theory with practice allowing them to further understand the material discussed. Students are directed to relevant journals and textbooks and even some television documentaries which highlight current topics which will allow them to provide more comprehensive answers in their end of year exam. It is important the students are accountable for their own learning (Smith & van Doren, 2004:67).
Lectures are used to introduce students to new topics where a worked example to an accounting problem is issued to each student. McLaren & Isotani (2012:222) advise this benefits learners as they can focus on constructing “cognitive schemas” which will allow them to solve comparable exercises issued later in the course. Each exercise subsequently issued is slightly more challenging than the last. Active learning is utilised as students are encouraged to use the worked example to try to solve the issue in small groups before being given the answer. This allows them to develop their numeracy, communication and problem solving skills (Education Scotland, n.d.). It is argued that students retain information longer when working in small groups as opposed to other methods (Davis, 1999).
During the course of the class, immediate feedback is given to students working on a particular exercise. Students complete an exercise and are aware their balance sheets should balance, had the exercise been completed correctly. Upon realising they have made a mistake, immediate feedback is given to the student to highlight where calculations may be incorrect. Phye & Andre (1989) argue that a student is more likely to understand their mistake and retain their newfound knowledge longer when immediate feedback is given.
Summative assessments are used at the end of each Learning Outcome in order to gauge students’...
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Smith, L. & van Doren, D., 2004. The Reality-Based Learning Method: A Simple Method for Keeping Teaching Activities Relevant and Effective. Journal of Marketing Education, 26(1), pp. 66-74.
Taylor, D., 2007. Death by PowerPoint. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 49(5), p. 395.
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