Extraction

Topics: Chemistry, Sodium hydroxide, Ethanol Pages: 3 (550 words) Published: July 3, 2013
Charles W. Virgill

Organic Lab Report

Extraction

Separation of a Carboxylic Acid, a Phenol, and a Neutral Substance

Purpose

The objective of the experiment is to identify the three substances in the mixture and to determine the percent recovery of each from the mixture. The unknown will consist of either benzoic acid or 2-chlorobenzoic acid, 4-t-butyl phenol. Determine the weight of crystals and also the percent yield

Introduction

There are various techniques of extractions, solid/liquid extraction, which is the most common, is used for brewing beverages and isolating compounds from natural products. Liquid/Liquid extraction is also a very common method in organic labs. In this experiment there are two types of liquid/liquid extraction, neutral and acid/base. The organic products are often separated from inorganic substances in a reaction mixture by liquid/liquid extraction with an organic solvent.

Equations

%yield = (actual yield/theoretical yield) x 100

Experimental

Firstly 0.1836 grams was dissolved in 2mL of t-butyl methyl either and placed in tube 1

Then 1m L of a saturated aqueous solution of sodium bicarbonate was added to the tube

The contents were mixed forcefully by using a Pasteur pipette and expelling forcefully

This was done for about three minutes; the layers were then allowed to separate

The lower layer was placed in tube 2 and another 0.15mL of sodium bicarbonate was added

The lower layer was then again added to tube 2, 1.0 mL of 3 M aqueous sodium hydroxide was added to tube 1

The layers were then allowed to separate; the lower layer was pipetted off and placed to tube 3

Tube 1 was then extracted with two 0.13mL, the ether was discarded

Saturated sodium solution was added to tube 1, mixed and the aqueous was removed

Anhydrous calcium chloride pellets were added until no clump, then washed with ether

The ether was allowed...
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