With the globalization of businesses, chances and challenges, the need for expatriates in international business becomes necessary. Global human resource managers need to realize and recognize the signs of potential global assignment failures and their impact on the business and long term objectives of the organization. International assignments end in failure (when defined as a premature return) because of many factors that potentially affect the adjustment of expatriates such as cross- cultural training, individual factors, job factors, organizational culture, organizational socialization as well as various non-work factors (Black, et al., 1991). The processes of expatriate staffing and training programs are expensive and complex, particularly when the company has to pay taxes for the parent-company employee in both countries (Deresky, 2011). Effective training programs for expatriates contributed to the growing awareness among business firms that the key to success rests with their ability to mobilize and utilize their human resources in crafting and implementing new global business strategies (Selmer & Leung, 2007). Without proper training and a realistic job preview, the expatriate will have a very hard time adjusting to his/her new surroundings (Andreason, 2008).
In May 2008, a survey by GMAC Global Relocation identified three significant challenges facing corporations: finding suitable candidates for assignments, helping employees (and their families) complete their assignments, and retraining these employees once their assignments end. Hence, it is necessary for multinational corporations (MNCs) to discuss the career prospects of expatriates according to the needs of the company or product strategy before expatriation. In doing so, the international expatriates will be able to understand and know the direction of their employment training. In other words, international company managers can focus on providing expatriates with parent company information along with all the necessary support and help (Wang, 2008). In the past, many expatriate assignments were highly adored. Expatriates were usually assigned to relatively stable, desirable locations, received generous allowances, and often were viewed as receiving high-visibility training for corporate advancement (www.healthcare.com). Today, this trend seems to be reversed with more dissatisfaction noted with international assignments. Factors influencing the selection
The illustrate; above shows the factors that influenced in expatriate selection. Technical ability, cross-cultural suitability, and family requirement are factors related to the individual, and cultural requirements, language, and MNC requirement are influenced by the situation. In order to perform the specific task of the abroad assignments, the selected person needs to have the required technical and managerial skills. The technical ability of candidates is a crucial criterion to consider ( Dowling & Welch, 2004) and in practice, it is one of the most commonly used criterions ( Collings et al., 2007; Harris & Brewster, 1999; Thomas, 2002). The assessment of a candidate’s technical ability is seen as relatively easy as it is often based on previous job performance, where evaluation records and statements form the person’s superiors are available. However, it must be remembered that past performance might not matter that much, when face with solving specific problems in a new foreign culture and environment (Dowling & Welch, 2004).
Expatriates needs to be able to work in new and often somewhat unfamiliar environments, and their cross-cultural suitability therefore needs to be considered (Dowling & Welch, 2004). According to Dowling and Welch (2004) important attributes to consider when assessing candidates’ cross-cultural suitability include cultural empathy, language skills, attitude toward new cultural empathy, and the importance for...
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