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"Marriage equality" redirects here. For other uses, see Marriage equality (disambiguation).
Legal recognition of
Performed in some jurisdictions
Mexico: DF, QR
United States: CT, DC, DE†, IA, MA, MD, ME, MN†, NH, NY, RI†, VT, WA, 3 tribal jurisdictions
Recognized, not performed
Aruba, Curaçao, St Maarten (NL only)
Mexico (when performed in Mexico)
United States: CA (conditional)
[show]Civil unions and
† Not yet in effect
1 Not in the Faroe Islands or Greenland
2 Not in Aruba, Curaçao or St Maarten
3 Not in Tokelau, Niue or the Cook Islands
v t e
Same-sex marriage (also known as gay marriage) is marriage between two persons of the same biological sex and/or gender identity. Legal recognition of same-sex marriage or the possibility to perform a same-sex marriage is sometimes referred to as marriage equality or equal marriage, particularly by supporters. The first laws in modern times enabling same-sex marriage were enacted during the first decade of the 21st century. As of May 2013, thirteen countries (Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Denmark,[nb 1] France, Iceland, Netherlands,[nb 2] Norway, Portugal, Spain, South Africa, Sweden), and several sub-national jurisdictions (parts of Mexico and the United States), allow same-sex couples to marry. Uruguay and New Zealand[nb 3] have both enacted laws to legalize same-sex marriage which will come into force in August 2013. Bills allowing legal recognition of same-sex marriage have been proposed, are pending, or have passed at least one legislative house in Andorra, England and Wales, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, Nepal, Scotland, and Taiwan, as well as in parts of Australia, Mexico, and the United States. Introduction of same-sex marriage laws has varied by jurisdiction, being variously accomplished through a legislative change to marriage laws, a court ruling based on constitutional guarantees of equality, or by direct popular vote (via a ballot initiative or a referendum). The recognition of same-sex marriage is a political, social, human rights and civil rights issue, as well as a religious issue in many nations and around the world, and debates continue to arise over whether same-sex couples should be allowed marriage, be required to hold a different status (a civil union), or be denied recognition of such rights. Allowing same-gender couples to legally marry is considered to be one of the most important of all LGBT rights. Same-sex marriages can be performed in a secular civil ceremony or in a religious setting. Various faith communities around the world support allowing same-sex couples to marry or conduct same-sex marriage ceremonies; for example: Quakers, U.S. Episcopalians, the Metropolitan Community Church, the United Church of Christ, the United Church of Canada, Buddhism in Australia, Reform and Conservative Jews, Wiccans, Druids, Unitarian Universalists, and Native American religions with a two-spirit tradition, as well as various progressive and modern Christian, Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist, and Jewish groups and various minor religions and other denominations. Studies conducted in several Western countries indicate that support for the legal recognition of same-sex marriage increases with higher levels of education and that support is strong among younger people. Additionally, polls in various Western countries show that there is rising support for legally recognizing same-sex marriage across race, ethnicity, age, religion, political affiliation, ash socioeconomic status. Contents [hide]
References: ^ Mulholland, Helene (27 September 2012). "Ed Miliband calls for gay marriage equality". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 23 December 2012.
Jowit, Juliette (12 June 2012). "Gay marriage gets ministerial approval". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
^ Shapiro, Lila (8 June 2012). "Same-Sex Marriage Support Growing In New Poll, Experts Say Personal Knowledge Of Gays May Play Role". Huffington Post. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
^ Taylor, Pamela K. (31 July 2009). "Marriage: Both Civil and Religious". The Washington Post. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
^ Smith, Susan K. (30 July 2009). "Marriage a Civil Right, not Sacred Rite". The Washington Post. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
^ a b American Psychological Association (2004). "Resolution on Sexual Orientation and Marriage". Retrieved 10 November 2010.
^ American Psychiatric Association (2005). "Support of Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Civil Marriage". Retrieved 10 November 2010.
^ a b American Anthropological Association (2005). "Statement on Marriage and the Family from the American Anthropological Association". Retrieved 10 November 2010.
^ Warner, Michael (1999). The Trouble with Normal. The Free Press. p. 80.
^ Watson, Jamal (3 August 2005). "Sharpton Pledges Fight Against Homophobia Among Blacks". The New York Sun. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
^ Craig A. Rimmerman; Clyde Wilcox (2007). The politics of same-sex marriage. University of Chicago Press. p. 234. ISBN 978-0-226-72001-2. "Clearly homophobia is at the heart of blanket opposition to gay rights policies."
^ Evan Gerstmann (2004)
^ Mathabane, Gail (25 January 2004). "Gays face same battle interracial couples fought". USA Today (Washington DC). Retrieved 1 February 2010.
^ Lamb, Ph.D., Michael. "Expert Affidavit for U.S. District Court (D. Mass. 2009)". Gay & Lesbian Advocates & Defenders. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
^ Biblarz, Timothy J.; Stacey, Judith (February 2010). "How Does the Gender of Parents Matter?". Journal of Marriage and Family 72 (1): 3–22. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2009.00678.x.
^ Dr. Brian Mustanski (22 March 2010). "New study suggests bans on gay marriage hurt mental health of LGB people". Psychology Today. Retrieved 8 November 2010.
^ Rauch, Jonathan (2004). Gay Marriage: Why It Is Good for Gays, Good for Straights, and Good for America. New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company, LLC.
^ Francis, AM; Mialon, HM (March 2010). "Tolerance and HIV". Journal of Health Economics 29 (2): 250–267. doi:10.1016/j.jhealeco.2009.11.016. PMID 20036431. Retrieved 19 July 2010.
^ (Fausto-Sterling et al., 2000)
^ "How common is intersex?"
^ Schwartz, John (18 September 2009). "U.S. Defends Marriage Law". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 September 2009.
^ Jowit, Juliette (12 June 2012). "Gay marriage gets ministerial approval". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
^ "Law and Civil Rights". PollingReport.com. POLLING REPORT, INC. 2013. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
^ Hinsch, Bret. (1990). Passions of the Cut Sleeve. University of California Press. pp. 24–25
^ Ibid, 465
^ Gay Rights Or Wrongs: A Christian 's Guide to Homosexual Issues and Ministry, by Mike Mazzalonga, 1996, p.11
^ The Nature Of Homosexuality, Erik Holland, page 334, 2004
^ Boswell, John (1995). Same-sex unions in premodern Europe. New York: Vintage Books. pp. 80–85. ISBN 0-679-75164-5.
^ Scarre, Chris (1995). Chronicles of the Roman Emperors. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd. p. 151. ISBN 0-500-05077-5.
^ Treggiari, Roman Marriage (Oxford, 1991), p. 5.
^ Eskridge, William N. (Oct 1993). "A History of Same-Sex Marriage". Virginia Law Review 79 (7). "The Romans may have accorded some same-sex unions the legal or cultural status of marriage."
^ Kuefler, Mathew (2007)
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