Professor Geert Hofstede’s study is one of the most comprehensive one that has ever been made. His data covered more than 70 countries, including now six dimensions. These dimensions are Power Distance (PDI), Individualism versus Collectivism (IDV), Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS), Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) and Long-term Orientation (LTO). The sixth dimension Indulgence versus Restraint (IND) is based on Michael Minkov’s work, and was added in 2010. (Hofstede, 2014) Power distance
With the score of 50, Italy might seem like a country where power distance has a medium to low value. However this value rather shows that Italy is under a transition. The younger generation does not take total control and former supervision very well. Also at Italian businesses the formal rigid hierarchy is changing and at this score it is also represented. ( As a criticism to Hofstede, we can state that this score is also a rather average value and not representing the Italian culture accurately. There are significant differences between Southern Italy and Northern Italy. Northern Italian businesses usually work with smaller power distance, preferring equality and participative decision making, while Southern Italian businesses tend to have a larger PDI (Hofstede, 2014). If we compare Italy with Germany and Vietnam, we will see Italy is between them. In Vietnam the power distance is very high (70) while in Germany control is disliked, leadership is often challenged and meeting are participative thus power distance is small (35). A Northern Italian manager may easily get used to the German style of leadership, however a Southern Italian would have problems. Also just like every European manager, Italian managers would have problems in Vietnam driven by the fact that the hierarchy there is very rigid and facing the inherent inequalities and centralization might be hard even for South Italian managers. Individualism
Just like with power distance, we can see a...
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