Ibnu Khaldun

Topics: Educational psychology, Education, History of education Pages: 10 (1317 words) Published: August 6, 2014


POSTGRADUATE DIPLOMA
IN
ISLAMIC THOUGHT & CIVILISATION

A STUDY ON FORMAL AND INFORMAL EDUCATION

ASSIGNMENT IITC 5010

NAME: ROSLI BIN JAMAL

MATRIC NO : G1336667

MODULE : IITC 5010, RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

LECTURER : PROFESSOR DR ABDUL RASHID MOTEN

TITLE
A study on formal and informal education.
PROBLEM STATEMENT
Is formal education the only way to achieve the ability to read , understand and perform daily transactions?

JUSTIFICATION OF PROBLEM STATEMENT
The reason this research is justifiable because it is hard to be true. In the past forefathers did not attend any form of formal education but they still can read, understand and perform daily transactions.

BACKGROUND
Compulsory Education (CE) was implemented in Singapore in 2003. The first cohort of pupils coming under CE are Singapore Citizen children born between 2nd January 1996 and 1st January 1997 who are residing in Singapore1. Before 2003, Singaporean can choose whether to send their children to formal or informal education. In the past forefathers did not attend any form of formal education but they still can read, understand and perform daily transactions.

LITERATURE REVIEW
LITERATURE REVIEW 1

What is Education?

From the first literature, the definition of education is extracted.

Education has been defined differently by different people. We draw inspiration from various sources to conceptualize education as the process of imparting and acquiring knowledge, skills and attitude through various forms of teaching and learning with a view to preparing individuals to be responsible citizens (Jackson, n.d.). It is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills, and values from one generation to another. It is “an important asset that raises people’s aspirations to increased social, economic, and cultural performance; raises their level of awareness of their environment and equips them with the necessary skills and ideology for contending with the problems they encounter in their daily lives” (Ishumi, 1976, p. 6).

There are different types of education ranging from formal to non-formal and informal education depending on the context, methods, curriculum and teaching and learning materials used. In the following section, formal and non-formal forms of education are briefly explained.

“Formal education cannot guarantee a lifelong and well-paid job as it could in the past2…”

LITERATURE REVIEW 2

The second literature review manages to contrast the differences between formal and non-formal education. The differences are shown in the table below.

Differences
Formal Education
Non-Formal Education
Purpose
-Long-term and general
-Certified
-Short-termand general
-Certificate not necessarily the main purpose
Timing
-Long cycle/prepatory/full-time
-Short cycle/recurrent/part-time
Content
-Standardized/input centered
-Academic
-Entry requirements determine clientele
-Individualized/output centered
-Practical
-Clientele determine the entry requrementss
Delivery System
-Institution-based,isolated from inviroment
-Rigidliy structured, teacher-centered and resource intensive -Enviroment-based and embedded in the community
-Flexible, learner-centerd and resource efficient
Control
External/hierarachical
-Self-governing/democratic
Source: Adapted from Simkins ( 1997,pp. 12-15, cited in Fordham. 1993 )

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Figure 1: Flowchart on Theoretical Framework
Referring to the above theoretical framework, these are the hypothesis.
Hypothesis 1: Prophets can read and understand through divine intervention

Hypothesis 2: Formal education lead to the ability to read and understand and perform daily transactions.

Hypothesis 3: Long overseas stay leads to exposure to a language of that country....
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Ibn Khaldun Essay
  • Ibn Khaldun: Group Solidarity Essay
  • Ibn Khaldun Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free
Watch now! | English Sterling Silver scrap salt pots serviette ring | Watch now