• Culture – a community’s set of shared
assumptions about how the world works and
what ideals are worth striving for.
• Culture can greatly affect a country’s laws.
• Culture influences what people value, so it
affects people’s economic systems and efforts
to invest in education.
• Culture often determines the effectiveness of
various HRM practices.
• Cultural characteristics influence the ways
members of an organization behave toward
one another as well as their attitudes toward
various HRM practices.
• Cultures strongly influence the
appropriateness of HRM practices.
• Cultural differences can affect how people
communicate and how they coordinate their
Dimensions of Culture
1. Globe Project Team
2. Hofstede’s model and
3. Trompenaar’s 7d cultural model
An understanding of these models equips international
managers with the basic tools necessary to analyse the
cultures in which they do business. The three approaches
also provide useful theoretical concepts to help understand
the nuances of different cultures better.
The GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational
Behaviour Effectiveness) project team comprises 170
researchers who have collected data over seven years on
cultural values and practices and leadership attributes from 17,000 managers in 62 countries, covering as many as 825
organizations spread across the globe.
The research team identified nine cultural dimensions
that distinguish one society from another and have important managerial implications: assertiveness, future orientation,
performance orientation, human orientation, gender
differentiation, uncertainty avoidance, power distance,
collectivism/societal, and in-group collectivism.
This aspect is defined as the degree to which individuals in organisations or societies are expected to be tough, confrontational and competitive versus modest and tender.
This dimension refers to the level of importance a society attaches to futureoriented behaviours such as planning and investing in the future and delaying immediate gratification.
Performance orientation measures the importance of performance and excellence in society and refers to whether people are encouraged to strive for continued improvement and excellence.
Human orientation is understood as the degree to which
individuals in organisations or societies encourage and reward people for being altruistic, generous, caring and kind to others. Gender Differentiation
This is understood as the extent to which an organization or society resorts to role differentiation and gender discrimination.
This refers to the degree to which individuals express pride, loyalty and cohesiveness in their organisations or families.
This refers to the degree to which organisational and societal practices encourage and reward collective distribution of resources and collective action.
This refers to the degree to which organisational members or citizens of a society expect and agree that power should be unequally distributed.
This refers to the extent to which members of an organisation or society strive to avoid uncertainty by relying on social norms, rituals and bureaucratic practices to minimize the unpredictability of future happenings.
GLOBE’s ranking is highly helpful to international managers who are seeking to be successful in cross-cultural settings. Anticipating cultural similarities and differences allows multi-cultural managers to develop the behaviours and skills necessary to act and decide in a manner appropriate to the host country norms and expectations.
Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions
In a discussion on multicultures, reference should be made
to the pioneering work done by the Dutch scientist, Geert...
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