JOT2 PP For Learning Theories MJ

Topics: Educational psychology, Learning, Lesson plan Pages: 22 (746 words) Published: February 15, 2015
Michelle Jolley
Student ID: 000366430
Mentor: Lidiya Yanusheva

Task A: Learning Theories
& Learners
Constructivism, Cognitivism, Behaviorism

Constructivism is Beneficial for
Learners . . .
● When there are multiple “correct” ways to
solve a problem.
●In problem-based learning, where the
process is more important than the product
●When students create, or construct, their
own learning, rather than the teacher
telling them what they must know.
● In a discovery learning situation

Cognitivism is Beneficial for
Learners . . .
● With advanced organizers that tie new
learning to previous knowledge
● With metacognitive strategies where
students focus on their preferred learning
● With chunked information
● Summarizing, synthesizing and
organizing information

Behaviorism is Beneficial for
Learners . . .
● Memorizing vocabulary, verb conjugation or rote
facts (drill and practice)
● When the teacher is the source of knowledge,
and students simply need to parrot it back
● When the teacher wants to encourage specific
behaviors by giving rewards or discourage
behaviors by giving consequences
● In computer-based learning situations

Task B: Learning Theory
Used in Lesson Plan
For many years Behaviorism was the basis for
language learning methods known as GrammarTranslation and ALM (Audio-Lingual Method). This lesson plan is based on a classic ALM

Behaviorism– Lesson Plan

Focuses on drill and practice
Memorization of dialogues, with the hope
that structures will transfer to “real”
Substitution drills change single elements
of a sentence to focus practice on isolated
grammar elements

Task C: Adaptation of
Lesson Plan
Lesson Plan Adapted to Cognitivism

Behaviorism modified to Cognitivism

Teacher would present example sentences in pairs with
the indicative and the subjunctive and ask students to
form their own theories about the differences.
Discussion and explanations follow.
Rather than prewritten, unrelated sentences, students
would be involved in creating samples, and perhaps
illustrating them, based on their own interests, thus
making personal connections to the structure being
A more personalized activity would replace the
memorization of a dialogue, such as a game where
students match phrases using ojalá and the subjunctive
to the person most likely to express those sentiments.

Task D: Lesson Plan

Cognitivism is preferable because

Teacher helps students organize information,
but students are more involved in the process
than in behaviorism
Links the construction to students’ prior
Illustrative examples come from both the
teacher and the students
Personalized practice is more meaningful, and
therefore more likely to be retained

Task E: Effective
Instruction Through the
Use of Design Theories

Using a design theory to plan a
lesson …

Provides a scaffold upon which to build the
Allows the teacher to see the big picture as
well as the individual parts of the lesson
Guides planning with a purpose and a
focus – planning is more intentional and
Can reflect the teaching/learning
philosophy of the teacher

Task F: Design Theories
Strengths and Limitations:



Teaching for Understand (The Harvard model)

Strengths of Wiggins Theory
● Stresses planning with the end in mind
● Easily incorporates standards into
● Focuses on the most critical skills and
● Is guided by essential questions
● Provides and encourages the use of data
to inform instruction

Limitations of Wiggins
● Understanding by Design is a
complicated system that requires many
hours of professional development time for
teachers to learn
● Even after learning the system, UbD can
seem complex and time...
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