Ok here goes.
For any issues question if it is a straight 30 mark outline and evaluate/discuss the extent/critiacally consider question i like to have 8 paragraphs and structure it accordingly.
Paragraph 1 - Introduction
It's always hard to write that first sentence in an essay so the way i look at it is, i always define the topic and what it is. In this case we are looking at cultural bias.Here define individualistic vs collectivist, ethnocentric and eurocentrism. These are examples of Theoritical Bias.
Individualistic is a term used by psychologists to describe alot of western cultures where a culture emphasises the importance of an indivudal wheras collectivist cultures (who are more specifically eastern societies) emphasise the importance of the group. Evaluate this as being too oversimplistic and ignoring individual and culturral differences. Ethnocentric bias occurs when the views of one's culture are used in order to make a judgement on other cultures. (When views from one culture are made generalisable to an another) Eurocentric Where research from european psychologists is imposed on other cultures.
Paragraphs 2 & 3
Outline methodological bias.
Etic - Where views from one culture are considered to be universal - Ainsworth & Bell's strange situation (Evaluate!!!) Emic - This is where there are specific views that vary from culture to culture. These tend to have been ignored due to the increase of etic. A study showing Emic was Cole's (1970) study of research into intelligence which investigated how objects were sorted into groups. Western sorted by category. African sorted by usefulness which suggests intelligence is different in various cultures. Racial bias - In studies where tribes have been evaluated, the specific tribe names have not been specified which is seen as an insult. Also describing their behaviour as "primitive" is a cultural stereotype.
The next cultural bias topics can be put into a new paragraph as there alot of...
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