Lab Report: Stoichiometry Lab
1) Create no waste = The principle that encourages chemists to not create waste at the first place rather than cleaning it up afterwards effectively shifts the chemistry more environmentally conscious, as creating no waste would make the experiment efficient; the reactants will be reduced to only the essential ones and the product will be maximized, a change that would make the experiment economic. Also, if chemists aim to engender no waste, this principle would solve the problem of disposal; as waste is often disposed by throwing it away in the nature, less waste possible will inflict less harm to the environment. Also, sometimes, the left over from the experiment causes disposal problems, as the experiments creates wastes that are hard to eliminate such as those with toxicity. For instance, during drug manufacturing, it often coproduces 100kilograms of waste for 100 kilogram of the desired product; however, if the green principle is applied, the waste can be reduced to 1/10. Thus, when choosing from two possible chemical processes chemists should consider preferring one that leaves less waste over the others, as leaving no waste contributes tremendously to environmentally conscious experiments.
2) 127.092g Cu/171.103g Reactants X 100 = 71.27%
63.546g Cu/95.546g Reactants X 100 = 66.50%
3) (a) the first process
(b) Atom economy informs the experimenters about the efficiency and economical aspect of the experiment. As high atom economy indicates that the experiment created more desired product and less waste, a indication of a green experiment. Thus, according to the principles of green chemistry, as the experiment with high atom economy creates less waste, makes the energy usage efficient, and gets rid of all nonessential additives( reducing non-essential reactants), a process with the high atom economy means that it is greener than other experiments. In essence, an experiment with high atom economy leads people to not waste any atoms; thus, people will utilize the rare and scarce resources more efficiently, and reduces the amount of waste that could harm the environment. (c) The principle of using materials that break down in the environment also effectively leads the experiments to be greener, as left over reactants would not cause any disposal problems. Also, if the experiment yields biodegradable products from environmentally friendly reactants, this would also eliminate the concern of disposal problem such as waste of energy for disposing unsafe materials and would create smaller amount of toxic products. Also, biodegradable products will decrease the exposure of inherently dangerous chemicals to other animals or plants.
4) Peer review is crucial part of experiments. Peer review is a process of rendering other people with the knowledge of the subject to check the process and the result that the experimenter has yielded. Thus, receiving peer reviews before publication is significant, as peers with different perspectives can point out and inform the experiments about the errors, any possible source of obfuscation, misleading parts and parts that the experimenter might have not considered. It also generally increases the quality of the report after the discussion with peers. Thus, chemists whose process could be propagated and could be used by others, wrong instructions could lead people to cause mistakes, and dangerous accidents. Thus, to reduce those risks, peer review could offer great benefits of making the experiments more secure. In essence, the results without any peer reviews has a higher chance of containing errors, a phenomenon that should be prevented before reporting the results of chemical process.
CuSO4-xH2O (s) -> CuSO4(s) + xH2O(g)
Initial mass: 0.1457g
Final mass: 0.0931g
0.1457g – 0.0931g = 0.0526g
0.0526g/0.1457g = 36.10% H2O
0.1457g X 63.9% = 0.0931g CuSO4
0.0931g CuSO4 X (1mol...
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