Principles of Learning and Teaching
STUDENTS AS LEARNERS – 35%
LEV VYGOTSKY http://facultyweb.cortland.edu/andersmd/VYG/ VYG.HTML
JEROME BRUNER http://tip.psychology.org/bruner.ht ml
JOHN DEWEY http://www.infed.org/thinkers/e t-dewey.htm
Importance of CULTURE humans use of tools and symbols to learn – culture dictates what we learn and how • Higher and Lower mental functions – elementary (or lower) functions gradually transform to HMF through culture • Central ROLE OF LANGUAGE: Language is made possible because of our culture (tools and symbols). The learning of language (or signs) is brought about by social processes, and language or signs ultimately make thought possible. Three stages in the development of speech a. Social speech – speech to control the behavior of others b. Egocentric speech – three to seven year olds – talking to themselves to learn c. Inner speech – soundless speech – thinking in our head • ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT: The discrepancy between a child's mental age [indicated by the static test] and the level he reaches in solving problems with assistance is the zone of his proximal development. _________________________________ ABRAHAM MASLOW http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/m aslow.html HEIRARCY OF NEEDS • Physiological needs • Safety needs • Belonging needs • Esteem needs • Self-actualization •
Principles: learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge – DISCOVERY and INQUIRY LEARNING • Instruction must be concerned with the experiences and contexts that make the student willing and able to learn (readiness). • Instruction must be structured so that it can be easily grasped by the student (spiral organization). • Instruction should be designed to facilitate extrapolation and or fill in the gaps (going beyond the information given).
Education must engage with and enlarge experience Exploration of thinking and reflection - and the associated role of educators Concern with interaction and environments for learning Passion for democracy, for educating so that all may share in a common life COOPERATIVE LEARNING
HOWARD GARDNER http://www.thomasarmstrong.com/multiple_intelligences.htm
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES - traditional notion of intelligence, based on I.Q. testing, is far too limited. • • • • • • • Linguistic intelligence ("word smart"): - use words in learning Logical-mathematical intelligence ("number/reasoning smart") – use numbers or logic in learning Spatial intelligence ("picture smart") – use pictures in learning Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence ("body smart") – use movement or physical experience Musical intelligence ("music smart") – use music Interpersonal intelligence ("people smart") – use of self-reflection Intrapersonal intelligence ("self smart") - use a social experience Naturalist intelligence ("nature smart") – use an experience in the natural world
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Knowing each theorist’s major ideas and being able to compare and contrast one theory with another comprises basic professional knowledge for teachers. development in young children? What are the major differences between Jerome Bruner’s and Jean Piaget’s theories of cognitive How might a teacher apply some of Lev Vygotsky’s ideas about scaffolding and direct instruction in the classroom? What does Gardner’s work on multiple intelligences suggest about planning instruction? What does Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs suggest about motivation for learning in the classroom?
ALBERT BANDURA – http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/bandura.html Modeling – “Observation LEARNING” (“Bobo Doll” studies) – (Learning = acquisition of knowledge) Steps in Modeling process: • Attention – to learn you must pay attention –the more colorful, dramatic, attractive, prestigious the more people pay attention • Retention – ability to remember what you have paid attention to. • Reproduction - translate the images or...
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