the study of the composition,
properties and structure of
it is considered “the central
science”; blending at one
extreme into physics,
mathematics, engineering and
sometimes into earth and life
Is the study of the matter, its
properties and structure; the
changes it undergoes, the energy
transformation that goes with the
change, and the laws and
principles governing such changes.
Is anything that occupies space and has
Can be invisible (can not be seen by the
May appear to be continuous and
unbroken (but it is actually discontinuous;
since it is made up of tiny particles).
Can be classified based on the physical
state, or based on the chemical state or
An apparently empty test tube is
submerged, mouth downward in water.
Only a small volume of water rises into the
tube, which is actually filled with invisible
matter, that is air.
The body of matter under
consideration, study or
Example: In an ice water mixture
ice is the solid phase and water is
the liquid phase. The system is
the ice and water together.
Homogeneous System – Matter that is
uniform in appearance and with uniform
Examples: ice, soda, solid gold, metal alloy
Heterogeneous System – Matter with
two or more physically distinct phases
separated from other parts by physical
Phase Changes in Matter
Solid to liquid
Solid to gas
Liquid to solid - Evaporation
Liquid to gas
Gas to liquid
Bose Einstein Condensate
States of Matter
– has a fixed shape and volume.
Liquid – has a fixed volume but it takes the shape of
Gas – has neither a fixed volume nor shape.
Plasma - Phase of matter that can only be observed
at extremely high temperature (present in the sun
and stars, outer space, and in nuclear reactions)
Bose-Einstein Condensate – Phase of matter the
can only be observe at extremely low temperature
(as the temperature approaching zero (0) K – the
temperature at which it is believed that the
molecules stop moving)
Matter refers to all
materials that make up the
Substance and Mixture
Substances – A particular kind of
matter that has a fixed composition and
Examples: ammonia, water, oxygen
– A particular kind of matter
containing two or more substances that are
present in variable amounts. Mixtures are
variable in composition. They can be
homogeneous or heterogeneous.
Examples: seawater, metal alloy, air
of One Substance
A pure substance can exist as
different phases in a
Ice floating in water consists of two
phases and one substance. Ice is
one phase, and water is the other
phase. The substance in both cases
is the same.
Classification of matter
A pure substance is always homogeneous in
composition, whereas a mixture always contains
two or more substances and may be...
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