Lecture 8 Matter

Topics: Energy, Chemical substance, Chemistry Pages: 70 (1921 words) Published: January 31, 2015
Chemistry
•Matter




States
Properties
Classification

Chemistry
is

the study of the composition,
properties and structure of
matter.
it is considered “the central
science”; blending at one
extreme into physics,
mathematics, engineering and
sometimes into earth and life

Chemistry
Is the study of the matter, its
classification, composition,
properties and structure; the
changes it undergoes, the energy
transformation that goes with the
change, and the laws and
principles governing such changes.

Matter







Is anything that occupies space and has
mass.
Can be invisible (can not be seen by the
naked eye).
May appear to be continuous and
unbroken (but it is actually discontinuous;
since it is made up of tiny particles).
Can be classified based on the physical
state, or based on the chemical state or
composition.

Matter

An apparently empty test tube is
submerged, mouth downward in water.
Only a small volume of water rises into the
tube, which is actually filled with invisible
matter, that is air.

System
The body of matter under
consideration, study or
observation.
Example: In an ice water mixture
ice is the solid phase and water is
the liquid phase. The system is
the ice and water together.
6

Homogeneous System
and Heterogeneous
System
Homogeneous

7

Heterogeneous

Homogeneous System
and Heterogeneous
System

Homogeneous System – Matter that is
uniform in appearance and with uniform
properties throughout.
Examples: ice, soda, solid gold, metal alloy

Heterogeneous System – Matter with
two or more physically distinct phases
present.

8

Deposition
Freezing

Solid

Condensation

Liquid

Melting

Evaporation

Gas

Phases
are
homogenous
part
of
a
system
Sublimation
and
separated from other parts by physical
Phase Change

10

11

Phase Changes in Matter
- Melting
- Sublimation
Solid to liquid
- Freezing
Solid to gas
Liquid to solid - Evaporation
- Condensation
Liquid to gas
- Deposition
Gas to liquid
Gas

to solid

Bose Einstein Condensate

?

Plasma

?
Deposition
Freezing

Solid

Condensation

Liquid
Melting

Evaporation

Phases
Sublimation
and
Phase Change

Gas

States of Matter
 Solid

– has a fixed shape and volume.
 Liquid – has a fixed volume but it takes the shape of
its container.
 Gas – has neither a fixed volume nor shape.
 Plasma - Phase of matter that can only be observed
at extremely high temperature (present in the sun
and stars, outer space, and in nuclear reactions)
 Bose-Einstein Condensate – Phase of matter the
can only be observe at extremely low temperature
(as the temperature approaching zero (0) K – the
temperature at which it is believed that the
molecules stop moving)

Classification of
Elements
Matter

Metals
Non-metals
Metalloids

Pure
substance

Acids
Compounds

Matter

Base
Neutral

Matter refers to all
of
the
Homogeneous
materials that make up the
universe.
Mixture

Heterogeneous

Solution
Colloids
Suspension

Substance and Mixture
 Pure

Substances – A particular kind of
matter that has a fixed composition and
distinct properties.
Examples: ammonia, water, oxygen

 Mixture

– A particular kind of matter
containing two or more substances that are
present in variable amounts. Mixtures are
variable in composition. They can be
homogeneous or heterogeneous.
Examples: seawater, metal alloy, air

Heterogeneous System
of One Substance
A pure substance can exist as
different phases in a
heterogeneous system.

Example

Ice floating in water consists of two
phases and one substance. Ice is
one phase, and water is the other
phase. The substance in both cases
17
is the same.

Classification of matter
A pure substance is always homogeneous in
composition, whereas a mixture always contains
two or more substances and may be...
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