Marriage and Dowry

Topics: Marriage, Dowry, Bride burning Pages: 18 (5629 words) Published: July 16, 2013
Dowry
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A dowry is the money, goods, or estate that a woman brings to a marriage.[1] (A dowry consisting mainly of linen and clothing, or the contents of a hope chest is called a trousseau.) Dowry contrasts with bride price, which is paid by the groom or his family to the bride's parents, and with dower, which is property given to the bride herself by the groom at the time of marriage. The same culture may simultaneously practice both dowry and bride price. Dowry is an ancient custom, and its existence may well predate records of it. Dowries continue to be expected in some parts of the world, mainly in South Asia, especially in India. Disputes related to dowry often result in domestic violence, such as dowry deaths. Contents [hide]

1 Dowry versus bride price
2 Functions of and justifications for dowry
3 Dowry violence and killings
4 Current dowry practices
4.1 India
4.2 Bangladesh
4.3 Pakistan
4.4 Nepal
4.5 Afghanistan
4.6 Sri Lanka
5 History
5.1 Ancient Babylon
5.2 Ancient Rome
5.3 India before European influence
5.4 North America
5.4.1 Indigenous cultures
5.4.2 Mexico
5.4.3 New France
5.4.4 United States
5.5 Europe
5.6 South America
5.6.1 Brazil
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
Dowry versus bride price[edit]

"Dowry" refers to money, goods or property that a woman brings into the marriage - it is paid by the woman's family to the man's family. Dowry is practiced mainly in South Asian countries, such as India. "Bride price" refers to money, goods or property paid by the groom or his family to the parents of the bride. It is paid by the groom's family to the bride's family. Functions of and justifications for dowry[edit]

The exact functions of dowry are subject to debate, and various justifications exist for it. There are several possible functions for a dowry system. One function of a dowry may be to provide the husband with "seed money" or property for the establishment of a new household and to help feed and protect the family.[citation needed] Another may be to provide the wife and children with some support if he were to die.[citation needed] Another function of the dowry may be as compensation for bride price.[2] This may be the case in cultures where the dowry and bride price are both customary. Many authors believe that the giving and receiving of dowry reflects social status and even the effort to climb higher in a social hierarchy.[3] A dowry may also have served as a form of protection for the wife against the possibility of ill treatment by her husband and his family,[4] providing an incentive for the husband not to harm his wife. This would apply in cultures where a dowry was expected to be returned to the bride's family if she died soon after marrying. Dowry violence and killings[edit]

Main article: Dowry deaths

Karnataka Forum for Dignity poster in Bangalore, India
The expected value of the dowry has risen in some cultures in recent decades. This phenomenon has led to a sharp increase in "dowry deaths" since the 1980s. A "dowry killing" occurs when a new wife is murdered by her husband or in-laws if they are unhappy with her, rather than sending her back to her parents, which would force the in-laws to return the dowry to the bride's parents. Statistics in India show that 90% of such murdered brides were educated, 30% were graduates, and 20% were women who worked outside the home and contributed to the family financially.[5] Dowry killings have been described by women's rights groups as a problem that is typically among the "emergent urban middle class", who aspire to greater material prosperity, and the dowry...

References: ^ Dowry - Reference.com, from The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 2004
^ [1]
^ Nigel Guy Wilson. "Dowry". Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece. 2002.
^ Tanwar, Reicha (2007). Dowry, the North Indian Perspective. Hope India Publications. ISBN 9788178711270.
^ a b Majumdar, Maya (2005). Encyclopaedia of Gender Equality Through Women Empowerment. Sarup & Sons. p. 74. ISBN 9788176255486.
^ Majumdar, Maya (2005). Encyclopaedia of Gender Equality Through Women Empowerment. Sarup & Sons. pp. 72–73. ISBN 9788176255486.
^ a b Stange, Mary Zeiss, and Carol K. Oyster, Jane E. Sloan (2011). Encyclopedia of Women in Today 's World, Volume 1. SAGE. p. 43. ISBN 9781412976855.
^ Jones, Gavin W. (1997). The Continuing Demographic Transition. Oxford University Press. pp. 290–1. ISBN 9780198292579.
^ a b Menski, Werner (1998). South Asians and the Dowry Problem. Trentham Books. p. 109. ISBN 9781858561417.
^ Annual Report: Bangladesh 2010. Amnesty International. 2010.
^ a b Walbridge, Linda S. (2003). The Christians of Pakistan: The Passion of Bishop John Joseph. Routledge. p. 134. ISBN 9780700716562.
^ a b Esposito, John L. and Natana J. DeLong-Bas (2001). Women in Muslim Family Law. Syracuse University Press. p. 85. ISBN 9780815629085.
^ Singh, Sarina, and Lindsay Brown, Paul Clammer, Rodney Cocks, John Mock (2008). Pakistan and the Karakoram Highway. Lonely Planet. p. 42. ISBN 9781741045420.
^ Menski, Werner (1998). South Asians and the Dowry Problem. Trentham Books. p. 165. ISBN 9781858561417.
^ " 'Honour ' killings, dowry deaths". The Nation. May 8, 2010. Retrieved May 13, 2012.
^ A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, John Murray, London, 1875
^ MAHARASHTRA TOURISM, The Official Website of Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation, Govt
^ Archival Compilations of Dharampal - Volume 1 [2]
^ a b Ferraro, Gary P., and Susan Andreatta (2009)
^ Deogaonkar, S.G. (2002). Native Americans And Native Indians. Concept Publishing Company. p. 48. ISBN 9788170229094.
^ Mangan, Jane E. (2005). Trading Roles: Gender, Ethnicity, and the Urban Economy in Colonial Potosí. Duke University Press. p. 237. ISBN 9780822334705.
^ Mangan, Jane E. (2005). Trading Roles: Gender, Ethnicity, and the Urban Economy in Colonial Potosí. Duke University Press. p. 140. ISBN 9780822334705.
^ Socolow, Susan Migden (2000). The Women of Colonial Latin America. Cambridge University Press. p. 83. ISBN 9780521476423.
^ Larry D. Eldridge, ed. (1997). Women and Freedom in Early America. NYU Press. p. 116. ISBN 9780814721988.
^ Archaeologia Americana: transactions and collections of the American Antiquarian Society, Volume 3. American Antiquarian Society, digitized by University of Wisconsin at Madison. 1857. pp. 274–5.
^ Mirza, Rocky M. (2007). The Rise and Fall of the American Empire: A Re-Interpretation of History, Economics and Philosophy: 1492-2006. Trafford Publishing. p. 83. ISBN 9781425113834.
^ Louis Auchincloss, False Dawn, p 48 ISBN 0-385-18021-7
^ Nazzari, Muriel (1991)
^ Nazzari, Muriel (1991). Disappearance of the Dowry: Women, Families, and Social Change in São Paulo, Brazil (1600-1900). Stanford University Press. pp. 65–7. ISBN 9780804719285.
^ Nazzari, Muriel (1991). Disappearance of the Dowry: Women, Families, and Social Change in São Paulo, Brazil (1600-1900). Stanford University Press. p. 67. ISBN 9780804719285.
^ Nazzari, Muriel (1991). Disappearance of the Dowry: Women, Families, and Social Change in São Paulo, Brazil (1600-1900). Stanford University Press. p. 73. ISBN 9780804719285.
Further reading[edit]
Hirsch, Jennifer S., Wardlow, Holly, Modern loves: the Anthropology of Romantic Courtship & Companionate Marriage, Macmillan, 2006
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