Metacognition: Enhancing Metacognitive Skills

Topics: Educational psychology, Metacognition, Learning Pages: 8 (2600 words) Published: July 22, 2013
Enhancing Metacognitive Skills

Research supports the idea that metacognition is one of the most profound predictors of learning (Brown, 1978; Dunlosky & Metcalfe, 2009; Flavell, 1976, 1979; Wang, Haertel & Walberg, 1990, 1993). A great deal of research on metacognition has been done in an attempt to understand the characteristics of a successful learner. Because students today are required to learn a great deal of information in a short period of time, it is important that they are aware of their own learning strategies and preferences as monitored through metacognitive skills. As educators, it not only is our job to give children the knowledge that they will need in order to be academically successful, but also to provide the skills that they will need in order to evaluate their own learning. This study will address student preferences for metacognitive skills and self-efficacy for implementing these strategies.

Educational Metacognition:
Enhancing Metacognitive Skills for Post Secondary Success
Statement of the Problem
Due to the high attrition rate of college freshmen, educators need to look beyond the scope and sequence of the curriculum to understand how to help students negotiate the transition from high school to college. It is well documented in research that academic success is significantly enhanced through the use of metacognitive skills and high sense of self-efficacy (Brown, 1978; Dunlosky & Metcalfe, 2009; Pressley & Woloshyn, 1995). Conversely, poor metacognition and low self-efficacy have been linked with poor academic success. Although most students do not have a problem with the transition from high school to post- secondary education fairly well, others lack the skills necessary to succeed in a less structured educational environment. In order to help students meet these new challenges, metacognitive skills must be taught prior to the transition to enhance post-secondary success. Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this research will be to examine classroom metacognitive strategies used by successful learners with high self-efficacy. This information can be used to determine which skills can be taught to all students to enhance post secondary success. In addition, this study will investigate the value of using the Metacognition Index (MI) of the BRIEF-SR to predict future self-regulation. Research Question/Hypothesis

Specifically, this study will investigate the following questions: 1. Which metacognitive skills are used most frequently by successful learners with high self-efficacy in the classroom? 2. Can the Metacognitive Index (MI) of the BRIEF-SR predict future self- regulation?

Literature Review
History is full of references to the idea of metacognition although the actual term used today was not coined until the late 1970’s. In his quote, “The life which is unexamined is not worth living, “Socrates implied the idea of metacognition. In the late 1800’s and early 1900’s, a technique known as trained introspection was used as a form of self-observation and as an important tool to discover the inner workings of the mind. Metacognition, as understood today, refers to impressions that one has about one’s own ideas and cognition (Flavell, 1979). Metacognition appears to be one of the most profound predictors of learning (Brown, 1978; Dunlosky & Metcalfe, 2009; Flavell, 1976, 1979; Wang, Haertel, & Walberg, 1990, 1993). Strategies designed to improve metacognition and memory can be traced as far back as Simonides in 557 BCE. Simonides is credited with the creation of the method of loci, a powerful mnemonic strategy to improve memory, that is still used today (Dunlosky & Metcalfe, 2009). Although it may seem that some define metacognition in a rather simplistic manner, such as Metcalfe’s “Knowing about Knowing” definition, it is anything but simple. Literature is robust with...

References: Boekaerts, M. & Corno, L. (2005). Self-regulation in the classroom: A perspective on assessment
and intervention
Brown, A.L. (1978). Knowing when, where, and how to remember: A problem of
Brown, A. L. (1980). Metacognitive development and reading. Theoretical Issues in Reading
Dunlosky, J. & Metcalfe, J (2009). Metacognition. Sage, Publications, Inc.
Van der Stel, M., & Veenman, M. V. J. (2008). Relation between intellectual ability and
metacognitive skillfulness as predictors of learning performance of young students
Flavell , J. H . (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring. A new
area of cognitive-developmental inquiry
Pressley, M., & Woloshyn, V. (1995). Cognitive strategy instruction that really improves
children’s academic performance
Wang, M. C.,G. D. Haertel, and H. J.Walberg. (1993). “Toward a Knowledge Base for School
Learning.” Review of Educational Research 63: 249–294.
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