Facilitating learning: Teaching and learning methods
Authors: Judy McKimm MBA, MA (Ed), BA (Hons), Cert Ed, FHEA Visiting Professor of Healthcare Education and Leadership, Bedfordshire & Hertfordshire Postgraduate Medical School, University of Bedfordshire Carol Jollie MBA, BA (Hons) Project Manager, Tanaka Business School, Imperial College London This paper was first written in 2003 as part of a project led by the London Deanery to provide a web-based learning resource to support the educational development of clinical teachers. It was revised by Judy McKimm in 2007 with the introduction of the Deanery’s new web-based learning package for clinical teachers. Each of the papers provides a summary and background reading on a core topic in clinical education. Aims The aims of this paper are to: • Provide ideas of how to make the most of clinical situations when teaching students or trainees • Raise awareness of the advantages and disadvantages of a range of teaching and learning methods in clinical teaching • Enable you to identify aspects of your everyday work which can be used as evidence for CPD Learning outcomes After studying this paper, you will be able to: • Identify opportunities for teaching and enabling learning in everyday clinical practice • Apply some of the major theories of learning and teaching from Higher Education and healthcare contexts to your own teaching practice • Utilise a wider range of teaching methods with students and trainees • Develop a reflective approach to teaching and learning which you can utilise in your own continuing professional development Contents • Acknowledgements • Introduction • The changing NHS: what does this mean for teachers and learners? • The learning environment – ‘learner centredness’ • The learning environment – the physical environment • Lifelong learning • The adult learner • Managing learning in a clinical and vocational context: o the education vs training debate o ‘learning by doing’ – becoming a professional o competency based learning o rehearsal, feedback and reflective practice
Teaching o o o o o o o o o o o
and learning methods: preparing for teaching facilitating the integration of knowledge, skills and attitudes teaching and learning in groups facilitating learning and setting ground rules explaining group dynamics managing the group lectures small group teaching methods and discussion techniques seminars and tutorials computer based teaching and learning – information technology and the World Wide Web o introducing problem based learning o case based learning and clinical scenarios References, further reading and useful links
Please note that the references, further reading and useful links for each of the sections are all in this section, grouped under subheadings Acknowledgements Thanks must go to colleagues who have contributed towards the development of this paper, in particular Clare Morris, Undergraduate Medicine Training Coordinator at Imperial College London and Dr Frank Harrison, Senior Lecturer in Medical Education, Imperial College London. Introduction This paper has been developed alongside Teaching and Learning in the clinical context: Theory and practice and Integrating teaching and learning into clinical practice. Between them, the three papers provide a comprehensive overview of teaching and learning in the clinical context. Theory and practice provides an overview of some educational theories, explains how these have impacted on teaching practice and offers ideas for putting theory into practice in the clinical context with a view to creating good situations for learning. Facilitating learning: Teaching and learning methods focuses on the ‘tools of the trade’: looking at some of the main teaching and learning methods that clinical teachers might use. Integrating teaching and learning into clinical practice has been written to follow and extend the theoretical learning in the other two papers. It considers the challenges of...
References: and further reading Boud, D. and Miller, N. 1996. Working with experience: animating learning. Routledge. London Cree V and Macaulay C, 2000, Transfer of learning in professional and vocational education, London: Routledge Department of Health and Universities UK. July 2002. Funding Learning and Development for the Healthcare Workforce: Consultation on the Review of NHS Education and Training Funding and the Review of Contract Benchmarking for NHS Funded Education and Training. Department of Health. April 2002. Workforce Development Confederations – Functions, Accountabilities and Working Relationships. Department of Health. November 2001. Working Together – Learning Together. A Framework for Lifelong Learning for the NHS. Department of Health. July 2001. Shifting the Balance of Power within the NHS: Securing Delivery. Department of Health. July 2000. The NHS Plan: A plan for investment, A plan for reform. Stationery Office. Department of Health. April 2000. A Health Service of all the talents: Developing the NHS Workforce. Consultation Document on the Review of Workforce Planning. [see http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/index.htm as link to all Department of Health publications] Ellington and Race. 1993. Producing teaching materials: a handbook for teachers and trainers. Kogan Page. London General Medical Council. July 2002. Tomorrow’s Doctors: Recommendations on undergraduate medical education. GMC: London. http://www.gmc-uk.org General Medical Council. 1999. The Doctor as Teacher. GMC. London Kolb, D.A. 1984. Experiential learning, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey Korst, R. in Newble, D. and Cannon, R. 1994. A handbook for teachers in universities and colleges: a guide to improving teaching methods, Kogan Page, London Peyton, R. (Ed) 1998. Teaching and learning in medical practice. Manticore Europe Ltd. Rickmansworth.
Playdon, ZJ. 29 May 1999. Thinking about teaching?. BMJ Classified, Editorial. Playdon, Z.J. and Goodsman, D. 1997. Education or training: medicine’s learning agenda. BMJ Volume 314, 29 March 983-984 1997 Ramsden, P. 1992. Learning to teach in Higher Education. Routledge. London Schon, D. 1987. Educating the reflective practitioner: towards a new design for teaching and learning in the professions, Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco SCOPME Report. 1994. Creating a better learning environment in hospitals: 1 teaching hospital doctors and dentists to teach. The Standing Committee on Postgraduate Medical and Dental Education. Stenhouse, L (1975) An introduction to curriculum development, Heinemann, London, 1975:52-83 Lecturing Brookfield S. 1998. Understanding and facilitating adult learning. Milton Keynes: Open University Press Fry H., Ketteridge S. and Marshall S. 2000. A handbook for teaching and learning in higher education. Routledge: London Horgan J. Lecturing for Learning. In Fry H., Ketteridge S. and Marshall S. 2000. A handbook for teaching and learning in higher education. Routledge: London. Newble D. and Cannon R. 1990. A Handbook for Medical Teachers. (2nd ed). MTP Press Ltd: Lancaster. Peyton, J. (Ed). 1998. Teaching and Learning in Medical Practice. Manticore Europe Ltd. Useful links The Deliberations site at http://www.city.londonmet.ac.uk/deliberations/lecturing/urls.html gives some hints on lecturing, effective presentations and communicating effectively. This includes some notes written for the site by Phil Race and some external links. Standford University’s resources and handouts for Faculty, Academic Staff-Teaching and Teaching Assistants has useful information on lecturing and tips for better lectures as well as a wide range of other resources: http://ctl.stanford.edu/handouts/index.html research and
The Art of Communicating Effectively http://www.presentingsolutions.com/effectivepresentations.asp KU Medical Center On-line Tutorial on Effective Presentations http://www.kumc.edu/SAH/OTEd/jradel/effective.html Small group teaching methods and discussion techniques Fry H., Ketteridge S. and Marshall S. 2000. A handbook for teaching and learning in higher education. Routledge: London Jaques D. 2000. Learning in Groups: A Handbook for Improving Group Work. (3rd ed). Kogan Page: London. For an article available about role-play see Midmer D. 2003. Role playing. BMJ. 326: S28 (25 January 2003) Newble D. and Cannon R. 1990. A Handbook for Medical Teachers. (2nd ed). MTP Press Ltd: Lancaster. Race P. and Brown S. The ILTA Guide: Inspiring Learning about Teaching and Assessment. ILT and Education Guardian. This guide is available free of charge to ILT associates and parts of the guide. There is a section on small group learning and teaching mid-way through the exercpt of the guide which is available on line at: http://education.guardian.co.uk/higher/careers/story/0,9856,620225,00.h tml Tuckman, Bruce W. 1965. 'Developmental sequence in small groups ', Psychological Bulletin, 63, 384-399. Cited in Smith, M. K. (2005) 'Bruce W. Tuckman - forming, storming, norming and performing in groups, the encyclopaedia of informal education, www.infed.org/thinkers/tuckman.htm. Last updated October 2007. Seminars and tutorials Crosby J. 1996. AMEE Medical Education Guide No.8. Learning in small groups. Medical Teacher, 18(3), p. 189-201 DeGrave W., Dolmans D. and van der Vleuten C. 2001. Student perceptions about the occurrence of critical incidents in tutorial groups. Medical Teacher. 23(1), p. 49-54 Fry H., Ketteridge S. and Marshall S. 2000. A handbook for teaching and learning in higher education. Routledge: London Jaques D. 2000. Learning in Groups: A Handbook for Improving Group Work. (3rd ed). Kogan Page: London.
Race P. and Brown S. The ILTA Guide: Inspiring Learning about Teaching and Assessment. ILT and Education Guardian. This guide is available free of charge to ILT associates and parts of the guide. There is a section on small group learning and teaching mid-way through the excerpt of the guide which is available on line at: http://education.guardian.co.uk/higher/careers/story/0,9856,620225,00.h tml Steinert Y. 1996. Twelve tips for effective small group teaching in the health professions. Medical Teacher 18(3), p.203-207 The Effective Teaching and Learning Network, although designed for school teachers, has some useful resource materials: http://www.etln.org.uk IT based learning Billings D.M., Connors H.R. and Skiba D.J. 2001. Benchmarking Best Practices in Web Based Nursing Courses. Advances in Nursing Science. 23(3): 41-52. March 2001. Carswell L, Thomas P, Petre M, Price B and Richards M. 1999. Understanding the ‘Electronic’ Student: Analysis of Functional Requirements for Distributed Education. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks. 3:1. May 1999. Cobb S.M., Byrne D.E. and Bateman N.T. 2001. Dynamic teaching feedback using the World Wide Web. Medical Education. 35: 1066-1090. Forsyth, Teaching and learning materials and the Internet, 3rd Edition, Kogan Page, London, 2001 Fox N, O’Rourke A., Roberts C. and Walker J. 2001. Change management in primary care: design and evaluation of an internetdelivered course. Medical Education. 35: 803-805. Graham H.J., Seabrook M.A. and Woodfield S.J. 1999. Structured packs for independent learning: a comparison of learning outcome and acceptability with conventional teaching. Medical Education. 33, 579-584. Jolliffe, Ritter and Stevens, The online learning handbook: developing and using web based learning, Kogan Page, London, 2001 Slotte V., Wangel M. and Lonka K. 2001. Information technology in medical education: a nationwide project on the opportunities of new technology. Medical Education. 35: 990-995. Steele D.J. et al. 2002. Learning preferences, computer attitudes, and student evaluation of computerised instruction. Medical Education. 36: 225-232.
Vogel M and Wood D.F. 2002. Love it or hate it? Medical students’ attitudes to computer-assisted learning. Medical Education. 36: 214-215. Ward M. and Newlands D. 1998. Use of the Web in undergraduate teaching. Computers & Education. 31: 171-184 On-line resources Bearman M. Technology in medical education. A hypertext guide to developing interactive multimedia (IMM), computer assisted learning (CAL) and World Wide Web applications with a focus on medical education. http://www.med.monash.edu.au/informatics/techme/ Greenhalgh T. 2001. Computer assisted learning in undergraduate medical education. BMJ. 322:40-44 (6 January) The HEA Subject centre for Medicine, Dentistry and Veterinary Medicine (MEDEV) at http://www.medev.ac.uk uses a combination of activities delivered via the web to support staff working in medicine, dental and veterinary medicine. McKimm, J., Jollie, C and Cantillon, P. 2003. ABC of learning and teaching: Web based learning, BMJ, Apr 2003; 326: 870 - 873 World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) Guidelines for using Computers in Medical Education. Medical Education 1998; 32: 205-8. Useful images and descriptions of how to use the Internet and web-based facilities can be found on the following website: http://www.learnthenet.com/english/section/intbas.html Problem based learning - general Boud D, and Feletti, G. (1999) The challenge of problem based learning. Kogan Page, London. Davis M and Harden R. (1999) AMEE Medical Education Guide No. 15: Problem-based learning: a practical guide. Medical teacher 21(2) 130-140. Education Committee of the GMC (1993). Tomorrow’s Doctors: recommendations in undergraduate medical education. London. GMC Maudsley G. (1999) Roles and responsibilities of the problem based learning tutor in the undergraduate medical curriculum. BMJ 318 657-661. Moore GT, Block SD, Briggs Style C, Mitchell R (1994). The influence of the new pathway curriculum on Harvard medical students. Acad. Med 69, 983-989. Schmidt HG, (1983) Problem based learning: rationale and description. Medical Education 17 11-16.
Problem based learning – writing problems Dolmans DHJM, Snellen-Balendong H, Wolfhagen IHAP and Van der Vleuten PM. (1997) Seven principles of effective case design for a problem-based curriculum. Medical Teacher 19(3) 185-189. Problem based learning – in the clinical setting Aspegren K, Blomqvist P and Borgstrom A. (1998). Live patients and problem-based learning. Medical Teacher 20(5) 417-420. Dammers J, Spencer J and Thomas M (2001). Using real patients in problem based learning. Medical Education 35 27-34.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document