Modeling of Competence Based on AHP: Toward Better Selection of Soccer Coach Xing Jie,
Abstract: A general review of competence-based rating approaches of soccer coach is presented, in comparison with an analysis of traditional selection methods. This paper compiles a simulative competence dictionary of soccer coach. Based on this, a competence evaluation model of soccer coaches is presented, through means of Delphi and the reference of CES. Furthermore, the model is applied to the evaluation of Chinese soccer coaches by analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The competence index weight on every level was determined by AHP and competence scores of selected soccer coaches were given as well. Results show that competence evaluation of soccer coaches based on AHP is feasible. Key words: Soccer coaches, Selection, Competence, Model, AHP
The concept of competence was put forward by the Hay-McBer consulting company in the 1960s. The initial studies focused more on individual competence. The early 1970s, David McClelland, Professor at Harvard University, in associate with the U.S. government, discovered the attitudes and behaviors that outstanding managers have and preliminarily defined competence as, characteristics of people that can differentiate performance in a particular job or a role (McClelland, 1973). Now competences are commonly conceptualized as a measurable pattern of knowledge, skills, abilities, behaviors, and other characteristics that differentiate high from average performance (Athey & Orth, 1999; Mirable, 1997; Rodriguez, Patel, Bright, Gregory, & Gowing, 2002). Spencer, Lyle M. and Spencer, Signe M. introduced the iceberg model (1993)where they divided the competencies into two big groups: one tangible group, the easiest to determine and develop, such as skills and knowledge and one deep group, less visible and less easy to identify, like self-concepts, attitudes and values and nucleus one’s personality. Thus, this invisible group becomes the critical feature that distinguishs outstanding employees from average ones. The concept of core competence of corporations was firstly presented in 1990(C.K. Prahalad & Gary Hamel in Harvard business review). It suggested that a company's competitiveness derive from its core competencies, which would be possessed by everyone within the organization. These corporate level core competencies were categorized as three: providing potential access to a changing market, devoting to the customer benefits of the end product and setting up barriers over competitors’ imitation. Competences on organizational level have been becoming hot topic among strategic management since then. David Ulrich (1997) extended Prahalad’s approach of corporation competence by linking individual competence with organizational competence and mentioned that organizational capability is the fourth capability of competitive advantage. The classificatory theory of competence began at the end of last century, noted by Spencer (1989), who summed up 21 competent characteristics of administrator, constituting generic competence model for technicians, salespersons, community services personnel, managers and entrepreneurs. Rifkin and Fineman (1999) were commissioned by 17 major U.S. R&D organizations to develop General Competency Model for technical managers. It features a model of behavioral competence, exclusive of personality and other personal traits. 1.2 Competence-based rating approach of soccer coach
Liu Liu and Wang Bin (2007) preliminarily studied competences of sports coach by means of behavioral event interview (BEI). They carried out BEI with 32 Chinese provincial senior coaches relating to 11 sport items, including basketball, hockey, table tennis, badminton, volleyball, wrestling, equestrian, modern pentathlon, gymnastics, martial arts, and swimming. Finally, they established a competence model of sports coaches in China. This model identified...
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