This is an outline of an essay about dyslexia.

Topics: Dyslexia, Educational psychology, Reading Pages: 5 (801 words) Published: October 2, 2003

A.About five to six percent of American public school children have been diagnosed with a learning disability; eighty percent of the diagnoses are dyslexia-related. But some studies indicate that up to twenty percent of the population may have some degree of dyslexia.

1.Dyslexia, what is it?

2.Causes and Symptoms


II.First Main Point:

A. Dyslexia is defined as a learning disability marked by impairment of the ability to read. In essence, it is a disability in which people jumble letters; for example, confusing God with dog or box with pox.

1. Most people think dyslexia is a condition that involves reading from right to left and reversing words and letters. While some people with dyslexia do have these problems, they are not the most common or most important characteristics of dyslexia. Experts say dyslexia has little to do with recognizing the visual form of words; rather, the brains of people with dyslexia are wired differently, making it difficult for them to break the letters of written words into the distinct sounds (or phonemes) of their language, a capability called phonologic awareness.

2.Dyslexia often comes with one or more other learning problems as well, including trouble with math, auditory processing, organizational skills, and memory. In addition to these problems dyslexics also have trouble with sequencing, poor memory, they may be a quick learner but also a quick forgetter.

3.Dyslexia can occur at any age. Scientist have done studies were many kids have the disorder at one point in life and then several years later they seem to not have any problems at all or vise versa.

III.Second Main Point:

1.Tends to run in families

2.Researchers have identified the genes that may be responsible for the condition.

3.Scientists have found specific brain malfunctions involved in dyslexia. Brain images show that dyslexia results from certain structural differences in the brain, particularly in the left hemisphere. Brains of people with dyslexia show very little activity in areas known to be highly important in linking the written form of words with their phonetic components. So in order to read, people with dyslexia must sprout alternative neurological pathways. They compensate by making more use of a front-brain section called Broca's area, traditionally associated with other aspects of language processing and speech.

A. The disability affects such a wide range of people, producing different symptoms and varying degrees of severity that predictions are hard to make.

B.Learning Style:

1.May be early or late in crawling, walking or talking

2. Appears bright but doesn't read, write, or spell at grade level.

3.May be seen as not trying hard enough

4.May not perform well on tests despite a high IQ

C.Motor Skills:

1.Has poor handwriting or trouble writing or copying.

2.Has poor coordination; does not do well at team sports; has difficulty with motor-oriented tasks.

3.Is prone to motion sickness

4.May be ambidextrous; confuses left and right, and over and under.

5.Learns best through hands-on experiences

D.Language and Reading Skills:

1. Gets dizzy, headache, or stomachache when reading; doesn't read for pleasure.

2.Shows transpositions, additions, substitutions, or reversals in letters, numbers, and words when reading or writing

3.Spells phonetically and inconsistently; has difficulty putting thoughts into words; may stutter.

E.Math/Numbers Skills:

1.Has difficulty learning to tell time or being on time

2.Can do arithmetic but not word problems; has trouble grasping algebra or higher math.

3.Poor memory for sequences

4. Thinks with images or feelings, not the sounds of words


1.May be disorderly or disruptive in class

2.Easily frustrated about school, reading, writing, or math

3.May wet the bed beyond appropriate age

4.Shows dramatic increase in symptoms under time pressure or...
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