Topics: Educational psychology, Collaboration, Education Pages: 7 (1330 words) Published: November 6, 2013
Proposal of a Collaborative Learning Standardization
Toshio Okamoto, Mizue Kayama and Alexandra Cristea
University of Electro- Communications Graduate School of Information Systems {okamoto, kayama, alex}

This paper reports on considerations and steps towards
standardization [2] of the collaborative learning
environment. This standardization will extend and widen
the field of applications possible within the collaborative
learning paradigm, and will make possible the usage of the
fruits of years of research and individual implementations
of the concept of collaborative learning, from our own
laboratory and from others.

1. Collaborative Learning Support
Distributed [4,5] collaborative learning [1,3,6,7,8]
support is a research domain that tries to find out ways to
support the collaboration of multiple learners on the
network (CSCL - Computer Supported Collaborative
Learning), in problem solving or other cooperative
curriculum activities, according to the used LT (Learning
Technology). Compared to CSCW (Computer Supported
Cooperative Work), CSCL has as a goal not so much the
working efficiency, but the learning achievement
efficiency, and the promotion of deep understanding of the
subject field by the learner, combined with the recognition
or meta-recognition of the achievement of this ability by
other persons. The regular CSCL groupware
implementation provides usually two types of activity
space: a private and a collaborative working space, where
the learners can exchange information in a synchronous or
asynchronous manner.

2. Primitive Activities and Resources
Primitive activities in collaborative learning are:
Dialogue (with Interaction), Data/Idea sharing, Observing/
suggesting, Turn-taking, Coordinating/ Control, Planning/
Executing, Initiative/ Supervising. The resources required in collaborative learning are: Dialogue Channel, Shared
Workplace (shared object space), Technologically mediated
remote communication (audio & visual), Personal Workplace.

3. Collaborative Environment Structure
For collaborative learning, we can differentiate between
learner-to-learner dialogue (communication) and other
activities (problem solving, etc.). When a learner faces a
problem that s/he cannot solve, s/he can, in collaborative
learning, exchange meaningful information via
interactions with his/her learning companion(s). This can
lead to understanding other persons' perception ways and

also help in finding eventual inconsistencies in ones own
judgments. Present researches analyze such interactions,
their catalyzators and effects. Moreover, as the learning
efficiency has been shown to increase in such situations,
many systems try to positively encourage them via
computer implementations.

4. Essential Structural Elements
Learners can belong to one or more groups and can be
involved in projects or parts of projects together, therefore sharing a particular space, and work privately for the rest. The shared working place (collaborative workplace)
contains the dialogue support objects for dialogue and
information exchange support, the collaborative working
objects for activity support, and the collaborative memory,
for reference and information accumulation. On the other
hand, the private working place contains the working
depository of the private working objects, and the private
memory for consultation and accumulation of private
activities related information. Moreover, the information
referencing layer contains information oriented towards
individual and collaborative learning goals, learning
materials, various educational data, libraries, educational
applications, all-purpose tools, market applications, etc.
There are 6 essential structural elements of the
collaborative learning environment standardization:
1. collaborative learning environment expression
2. collaborative workspace expression
3. collaborative learning resource(s)...
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