PSYCHOLOGY DEFINITION: The word Psychology derivesfrom Greek word ”Psyche” and “Locus” which means Psyche → Soul Locus → Science or Knowledge The Psychology literary means “the science of the soul”. A science that systematically studies and attempts to explain observablebehaviour and its relationship to unseen “mental” process that go on inside the organism and to external events in the environment. GOALS: Description Explanation Prediction Control of behaviour
Methods of Psychology:
a. Introspection b. Observation c. Experiment d. Case-study e. Anecdotal f. Field Study g. Differential h. Questionnarie i. Developmental
a. It is the oldest method in psychology. b. It means inter + inspection. c. Which means self or viewingfwithinself. d. Self – observation.
It implies observating the behaviour of others and this method provides direct knowledge of behaviour.This is most useful to the teachers. It emphasis that on perception,recordingof the observatingstudents,classification and Analysis of behavior and Generalization.
Types of Observation:
i. ii. iii. iv. Direct & Indirect Natural & Artificial Scheduled & Unscheduled Participant & Non-participant
This is to study to control & predict human behaviour. It is defined as systematic or Pre-planned observation.Under controlled conditions.This involves control,replication&randomization.Itis Independent and Dependent variable.
It is also called as stimulus variable or input variable It operates within a person or within his environment to affect his behaviour.
It is also known as a response variable or output variable. Observed aspect of the behaviour of an organism that has been stimulated.
This method is also known as the genetic method. The infant grows up to maturity through childhood & adolescence areinferried.This has two types .They are 1. Longtitude method 2. Cross section method. In Longtitude method the same individual & group of individual studied over a period . (eg) Harvard developmental studies 3500 children were studied for 12 years . Piaget’s cognitive development is an example for congtitudal search. The Cross sectional method are different individual of different ages are examined.
This method is to study “the individual or a group of individuals to detect and the diagnose their specific problem and suggest remedial measures”. It is also known as Case-Study history.It is a form of qualitative analysis involving careful and complete observation of a person or institution.
Types of Case-Study: i. ii. iii. Case studies of Individual Case studies of Institutions Case studies of communities
Steps involved in Case- study:
1) Identification of the problem 2) Collection of patient data from all possible sources 3) Diagnosis of the problem 4) Suggestion remedial measures 5) Follow up
The questionnaire is a popular technique for gathering data for by securing answer to a series of question related to the set of question which are printed. It also have two types. i. Direct method ii. Indirect method Series of question with a short time Unable to contrast the subjects of investigation directly. Impersional/general data to be collected Compare person & groups.
Differences between two phenomena which are naturally different. (eg) Anoxia affects the permanent growth & development of a child.
Branches of Psychology: General Phychology:
It deals with concept of perception,emotion,motivation,learning,thinking,source of individual differences and their measurements
It deals with the growth & development of the children. Role of Heredity&Environment in child . Differences in adjustment of behavior. Infant & adolescent psychology also emerged out of this psychology.
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