Qualitative Analysis helps to analysis the ionic compounds ( cations and anions) which are presented in a salt (solid and in a solution). The experimental procedures show the identity of the substance but not the amount of the present agents.
The construction of ionic salt is based on a certain cation and a certain anion. To get to know the two different agents of the salt, the anions and cations has to be separated. For the separation the ionic salt has to be destroyed by chemical reaction to get the single elements and compounds. A physical reaction can only change the conditions of the salt ( solid or fluid) but not the structure of the educt. Every element and compound has characteristic reactions where the identity can be figured out by analyzing the out coming educt by its color, its odor, its precipitation and its solubility. The following experiment is separated in two parts.
In the first part of the experiment, it has to be shown the different characteristic reaction with the cations (Na+, K+,NH4+,Mg2+,Cu2+,Ag+,Ba2+,Sr2+) and the anions ( Cl-, Br-, CO32-, SO42-, F-). In the following part there was an unknown ionic salt to analyze which is built out of one cation and one anion from above.
3. Materials and Methods
• Test tubes
• Bunsen Burner
• Test tubes rack
• Pasteur pipette
• Distilled water
• Ionic salts
There are several experiments to analyze the compounds and elements of an ionic salt : • Flame Test (for solid substance): for visually determine the identity of an metallic agent in the ionic salt by the different color • Heating effect ( for fluid substance): heating can cause the separation of a substance included odor...
References:  Handout: Medical & Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Analytic Chemistry Laboratory, Winter Semester 2011
J.E. Brandy, F.A. Sense, N.D. Jespersen, Chemistry. The Study of Matters and Its changes, International Edition, 5. Edition 2008
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