Questions on Assignment nineteen.
1. What is the basic principle on which programmed learning is based?
The basic principle of programmed learning is an individualised programme of learning. The behaviourist B.F.Skinner believed in a system where programmed instruction where the learner uses a specially prepared books or equipment to learn without a teacher. He based his ideas on the principle of operant conditioning. Research has shown that programmed learning is often as successful, and sometimes more successful, then traditional teacher-based learning because it recognizes the different abilities and needs of individual children.
2. Complete the diagram below to indicate the three guidelines in programmed learning? 1. An ultimate learning
aim is stated and this is
then broken down into a number of small steps.
2. Any progress in the right
direction is reinforced.
3. Reinforcements are
Immediate and carefully
3 Complete the following sentences.
In a linear programme a small piece of information is presented in a correct answer. The child is asked a question after each frame and he receives immediate feedback being given the correct answer straight away. A maximum success rate is ensured by arranging the frames carefully and limit the possible number of responses.
4. Which two points from the list below apply to linear programmes and which two apply to branching programmes?
a. Incorporates remedial frames to help explain any misunderstanding. b. Allows only correct answers.
c. The number of possible responses is limited to ensure a maximum success rate. d. A more complex but also more flexible programme,
Points B and C apply to linear programmes
Points A and D apply to branching programmes
5. Fill in the labels below to outline four principles of learning which is illustrated in the programmed learning.
A. Aims and objects clearly stated
B. Active participation
C. Immediate feedback
D. Individualisation of instruction
Complete the diagram to illustrate some of the advantages of programmed learning.
7. What effects did Atkinson note when children were taught to read through programmed learning rather than more traditional methods?
Atkinson conducted his own study into the way in which sex differences in reading performance can be affected by using programmed learning. Generally boys are slower learners compared to girls. So girls tend to learn to read at a quicker pace. When reading is taught by means of programmed instruction, the sex difference seemed to have disappeared. This method showed that in fact boys learned quicker than girls. It also showed greater gains by boys than girls.
8. Complete the diagram to illustrate some of the disadvantages of programmed learning?
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