Katy J. Kaldenberg
Grand Canyon University:
EED-470 Curriculum, Methods and Assessment: Literacy and Language Arts K-3 Monday, March 11, 2013
Reading Philosophies Chart
| Brief Description
| Reading Activities
| Reading Assessments
| Constructivist Reading Instruction
| Constructivists view the student as an active participant in the learning process who constructs a personal meaning from each experience (Ying-Tien & Chin-Chung, 2005).
| One Constructivist reading activity for teaching a student a new word is that the student is taught to use picture cues to learn to read (Ying-Tien, & Chin-Chung, 2005). For example, if the student cannot read a word, he or she is taught to look at the picture then go back and to the word and guess the meaning. Another activity for constructivist reading instruction would be that the teacher would have students work in small groups to discuss a book that was read to the class. The small groups of students may then also create their own story.
| Constructivist reading assessments would include the teacher collecting daily performance samples of work, observing and recording student’s behavior, audio and videotaping students in different situations, and building a portfolio filled with information about each student (Ying-Tien & Chin-Chung, 2005). The evaluation process is for the teacher, parent, and child. Conferences can also be held to discuss progress.
| Explicit Reading Instruction
| Explicit reading instruction is teacher directed (Goeke, 2009). The teacher uses explanation and demonstration to teach specific reading skills and strategies (Goeke, 2009). The teacher also provides corrective feedback to his or her students as the students attempt to apply the new knowledge (Goeke, 2009).
| An example of explicit reading instruction would be that the teacher would state the sound and spelling of a specific letter-sound correspondence and then demonstrate by modeling how to read words that include that feature to the class (Taylor, Peterson, Pearson, & Rodriguez, 2002). The students then would practice but only after the teacher has modeled the process first. A second example of explicit reading instruction would be to teach decoding to students that have deficits in word reading. A third example of explicit reading instruction would be having students use the mnemonic DISSECT (Discover the context, Isolate the prefix, Separate the suffix, Say the stem, Examine the stem, Check with someone, and Try the dictionary) to read unknown words (Adams & Engelmann, 1996). The teacher would teach each strategy step explicitly (Adams & Engelmann, 1996). An important part of explicit reading instruction is that the teacher always describes the strategy, provides the rationale for its use, and states how and when to implement a strategy explicitly to the students and the instruction is always implemented systematically (Adams & Engelmann, 1996).
| Explicit reading assessments would include having student answer multiple-choice questions about selected text passage; decoding assessments can also be given (Taylor, Peterson, Pearson, & Rodriguez, 2002). One example of a decoding assessment would be that the student is given isolated words one at a time, and the student is asked to say the word aloud. The words selected for a decoding assessment should be words that are within the student’s spoken vocabulary, and should contain a mix of phonetically regular and phonetically irregular words (Goeke, 2009). Another type of assessment is that of standardized tests such as the Diagnostic Assessments of Reading (DAR) and the Florida Assessments for Instruction in Reading (FAIR).
Reading Philosophies Summary
The educational realm is not free from disputes. Disputes on reading instructional practices have been ongoing for more than half a century. On one side of this debate is composed of those who believe that students...
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Ying-Tien, W., & Chin-Chung, T. (2005). Effects of constructivist-oriented instruction on elementary school students ' cognitive structures. Journal of Biological Education (Society of Biology), 39(3), 113-119.
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